Abstract:
Spin observables for the reaction $\gamma p \rightarrow K^+ \Lambda$ are examined using three recent dynamical models and are compared to the general features of such observables deduced earlier by Fasano, Tabakin and Saghai. These general features, such as the energy dependence of spin observables and the location of nodes in their angle dependence, are realized. Several instructive surprises, which occur in this comparison to the conjectures of Fasano et al., are then discussed. The sensitivity of spin observables to isobar and {\it t-}channel dynamics is analyzed and suggestions for selecting experiments which provide important dynamical information are presented.

Abstract:
The role of dynamics in spin observables for pseudoscalar meson photoproduction is investigated using a density matrix approach in a multipole truncated framework. Extraction of novel rules for $\gamma p \rightarrow \pi^+ n,~ K^+ \Lambda$ and $\eta p$ reactions based on resonance dominance, and on other broad and reasonable dynamical assumptions, are discussed. Observables that are particularly sensitive to missing nucleonic resonances predicted by quark-based approaches, are singled out.

Abstract:
Pion and kaon observables are calculated using a Dyson-Schwinger Bethe-Salpeter formalism. It is shown that an infrared finite gluon propagator can lead to quark confinement via generation of complex mass poles in quark propagators. Observables, including electromagnetic form factors, are calculated entirely in Euclidean metric for spacelike values of bound state momentum and final results are extrapolated to the physical region.

Abstract:
We examine the photoproduction of the light scalar mesons $f_0$-$a_0 (980)$ with emphasis on isospin-violating $f_0$ and $a_0$ mixing due to the mass difference between neutral and charged kaons. General forms for the invariant amplitude for scalar meson photoproduction are derived, which yield expressions for the invariant mass distribution of the final meson pairs. A final state interaction form factor is obtained which incorporates $f_0$ and $a_0$ mesons, $K\bar K$ threshold effects, and $f_0-a_0$ mixing. This form factor is applied to predict the effective mass distribution of the $\pi\pi$ and $K\bar K$ pairs in the vicinity of the $K\bar K$ threshold. An estimate of the role of isospin mixing near threshold is provided. The potential role of polarized photons and protons is also discussed.

Abstract:
Extraction of spin observables from vector meson photoproduction on a nucleon target is described. Starting from density matrix elements in the vector meson's rest frame, we transform to spin observables in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame. Several constraints on the transformed density matrix and on the spin observables follow from requiring that the angular distribution and the density matrix be positive definite. A set of constraints that are required in order to extract meaningful spin observables from forthcoming data are enunciated.

Abstract:
An analysis of all possible polarization observables for the case of vector meson photoproduction from a nucleon target is presented. The question of which observables are needed to determine completely the basic photoproduction amplitudes and the relationships between spin observables are addressed.

Abstract:
The number and type of measurements needed to ascertain the amplitudes for pseudoscalar meson photoproduction are analyzed in this paper. It is found that 8 carefully selected measurements can determine the four transversity amplitudes without discrete ambiguities. That number of measurements is one less than previously believed. We approach this problem in two distinct ways: (1) solving for the amplitude magnitudes and phases directly; and (2) using a bilinear helicity product formulation to map an algebra of measurements over to the well-known algebra of the $4\times 4$ Gamma matrices. It is shown that the latter method leads to an alternate proof that 8 carefully chosen experiments suffice for determining the transversity amplitudes completely. In addition, Fierz transformations of the Gamma matrices are used to develop useful linear and nonlinear relationships between the spin observables. These relationships not only help in finding complete sets of experiments, but also yield important constraints between the 16 observables for this reaction.

Abstract:
A multipole analysis of vector meson photoproduction is formulated as a generalization of the pseudoscalar meson case. Expansion of spin observables in the multipole basis and behavior of these observables near threshold and resonances are examined.

Abstract:
For the photoproduction of vector mesons, all single and double spin observables involving vector meson two-body decays are defined consistently in the $\gamma N$ center of mass. These definitions yield a procedure for extracting physically meaningful single and double spin observables that are subject to known rules concerning their angle and energy evolution. As part of this analysis, we show that measuring the two-meson decay of a photoproduced $\rho$ or $\phi$ does not determine the vector meson's vector polarization, but only its tensor polarization. The vector meson decay into lepton pairs is also insensitive to the vector meson's vector polarization, unless one measures the spin of one of the leptons. Similar results are found for all double spin observables which involve observation of vector meson decay. To access the vector meson's vector polarization, one therefore needs to either measure the spin of the decay leptons, make an analysis of the background interference effects or relate the vector meson's vector polarization to other accessible spin observables.

Abstract:
The general conditions under which the quadratic, uniform and monotonic convergence in the quasilinearization method of solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations could be proved are formulated and elaborated. The generalization of the proof to partial differential equations is straight forward. The method, whose mathematical basis in physics was discussed recently by one of the present authors (VBM), approximates the solution of a nonlinear differential equation by treating the nonlinear terms as a perturbation about the linear ones, and unlike perturbation theories is not based on the existence of some kind of a small parameter. It is shown that the quasilinearization method gives excellent results when applied to different nonlinear ordinary differential equations in physics, such as the Blasius, Duffing, Lane-Emden and Thomas-Fermi equations. The first few quasilinear iterations already provide extremely accurate and numerically stable answers.