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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12686 matches for " Frank Raymond "
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A Characterization of the Optimal Management of Heterogeneous Environmental Assets under Uncertainty  [PDF]
Frank Raymond
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25093
Abstract: The application herein involves the optimal management of renewable and nonrenewable resources within the context of a stochastic model of optimal control. By characterizing the two dimensional Bellman solution, three rules with respect to resource management are established. Within the context of coastal development, this analysis may help to explain why renewable resources may become increasingly vulnerable to random external shocks as nonrenewable resources are depleted. Although existence of an optimal closed form solution to the multi-sector Bellman model remains an open mathematical question, this analysis offers a characterization which can be applied to other scenarios in economics or finance in which two assets following stochastic processes interact.
Immiserizing Credit: Challenging the Efficacy of Microfinance  [PDF]
Frank Raymond, John Adams
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.48058

Despite a dearth of theoretical studies, there is widespread perception that microfinance is an enormously useful tool for economic development. However, an increasing number of households in lesser developed countries are facing the same debt squeeze as those in the developed world, but are less able to manage debt responsibilities. The consequences are much more dramatic for LDC households because a much larger portion of household income is necessary for subsistence. As such, microfinance can become immiserizing for poor families with few assets. We develop a dynamic model that allows households to use credit markets in order to augment household consumption or capital. Results indicate a proclivity for households to increase debt over time, challenging the efficacy of microfinance as a sustainable tool for development.

Seifert Manifolds
K. B. Lee,Frank Raymond
Mathematics , 2001,
Abstract: A Seifert manifold is a 3-dimensional manifold with a circle action. It is a circle bundle (with singularities) over a 2-dimensional orbifold. In this note, we discuss a generalized Seifert manifolds. By definition, they have bundle-like structures whose fibers are infra- homogeneous spaces; that is, the fibers are flat manifolds, almost flat manifolds, etc. We prove existence, uniqueness, rigidity theorems. Many interesting properties and applications are presented.
Random Information Spread in Networks
Raymond Lapus,Frank Simon,Peter Tittmann
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Let G=(V,E) be an undirected loopless graph with possible parallel edges and s and t be two vertices of G. Assume that vertex s is labelled at the initial time step and that every labelled vertex copies its labelling to neighbouring vertices along edges with one labelled endpoint independently with probability p in one time step. In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the expected s-t first arrival time of the above spread process and the notion of the stochastic shortest s-t path. Moreover, we give a short discussion of analytical results on special graphs including the complete graph and s-t series-parallel graphs. Finally, we propose some lower bounds for the expected s-t first arrival time.
Perceptual Incongruence Influences Bistability and Cortical Activation
Gijs Joost Brouwer, Frank Tong, Peter Hagoort, Raymond van Ee
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005056
Abstract: We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry). Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A) were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.
A Comparative Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete
Adam B. Robertson,Frank C. F. Lam,Raymond J. Cole
Buildings , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/buildings2030245
Abstract: The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m 2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m 2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
May I long experience the joy of healing: professional and personal wellbeing among physicians from a Canadian province
Brenda L Lovell, Raymond T Lee, Erica Frank
BMC Family Practice , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-10-18
Abstract: There were 165 physicians from a province of Canada who wrote their open-ended responses to two questions, as part of a larger self-report questionnaire. The questions asked what causes them stress, and what interventions should be implemented at organisational/institutional levels. The largest specialty was family medicine, followed by internal medicine, and surgical disciplines, with 58% of participants male. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the data and themes and sub-themes were discovered using the socio-ecological model as the framework.Reponses were both personal and professional which resulted in the emergence of four major themes to reflect this diversity. These themes were external constraints on the practice of medicine, issues at the professional/institutional levels, issues at the individual practice level, and work/life balance. The work/life balance theme received the highest number of responses followed by external constraints on the practice of medicine. In the major theme of work-life balance, work-life conflict received the most responses, and in the major theme of external constraints on practice of medicine, lack of resources (human and material) and restrictions to autonomy received the most responses. Ideas for interventions in the work/life balance theme were health promotion, and healthy workplace initiatives. In the second largest theme, suggested ideas for interventions were collegiality/professionalism and policy formulation at the health care system.Our findings have implications for governance and health policy, health human resources and education. In particular, the socio-ecological framework was a useful framework to analyse physician wellbeing due to its applicability for issues at the structural, organisational, and individual levels. Future research should target interventions at the organisational and institutional levels to address work-life conflict and job dissatisfaction."In seeking absolute truth we aim at th
Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses
Yongming Sang, Wyatt Brichalli, Raymond R. R. Rowland, Frank Blecha
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087613
Abstract: Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis.
Influence of Hot Spring Phages on Community Carbon Metabolism: Win, Lose or Draw?  [PDF]
Raymond Kepner
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.59066
Abstract: Abundant virus-like particles were concentrated from large-volume samples from two hot springs. Both addition of viral concentrates and addition of samples induced by addition of mitomycin-C changed patterns of carbon source utilization by hot spring microbial communities. Specific effects of the two treatments depended upon both temperature and incubation period. Increased metabolic capability with greater exposure to free phages, consistent with the view that phages are major lateral transporters of metabolic genes, was observed most clearly in microbes incubated at a temperature lower than that encountered in situ. On the other hand, decreases in the diversity of utilizable C sources upon exposure to phages may have been due to lytic activity in which susceptible bacterial populations were differentially reduced by infective viruses, consistent with the “killing the winner” hypothesis. Treatment of cultures with MC-treated culture extracts, assumed to increase exposure to excised prophages, resulted in higher average metabolic rates after 18 h, but lower rates after 48 h of incubation. With incubation at in situ temperature, this same treatment led to an initial increase in the number of readily utilized C sources, followed by a decrease in community metabolic diversity relative to controls in samples from both hot springs. Thus, treatments designed to increase the interaction between hot spring microbes and either free or newly-excised phages had observable time- and temperature-dependent effects on community metabolism, demonstrating an important, yet complex, ecological role for phages in hot spring waters.
Dehumanization, Racial Minority and Female Leadership: An Analysis of Global Trends  [PDF]
Simon Raymond
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.68022
Abstract: Purpose: The use of dehumanization, directed toward racial minorities, impresses as a global trend of significance, spanning from broad generalisations with regards to black community members holding a lower status through to Russian politicians terming Barack Obama and Michelle Obama as mammalian apes (or, monkeys). This report analyses the use of dehumanization and the validity of racial degradation. Female leadership is also analysed. Methods: A comparative analysis was performed assessing the achievements of African Americans in comparison with white (including caucasian) society, with a gender comparison to assess for consistency across genders. The categorisation of racial minorities based on the satisfying of criteria for conscious being recognition was also considered. Results: African Americans have held positions, and achieved success, equally respectable with that of the white (including caucasian) community. These members of society also satisfy the criteria for conscious beings. There appears to be no validity to support black or Asian people as representative of a being less than that of a human being. Conclusion: There appears to be no validity behind categorisation of certain races as lesser members of society. Furthermore, there appears no validity behind the use of dehumanization.
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