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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9928 matches for " Frank Ogbo "
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Some Characteristics of a Plant Growth Promoting Enterobacter sp. Isolated from the Roots of Maize  [PDF]
Frank Ogbo, Julius Okonkwo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23046
Abstract: Some properties of an Enterobacter sp. isolated from the roots of maize are described. Isolation was carried out using the semisolid enrichment culture technique and subsequent plating, both on nitrogen free biotin medium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic characterization using the MicroSeqTM 16S rDNA technique were employed in identification of isolate, which was revealed to be closest matched at 99.4% with Enterobacter asburiae. The isolate possessed properties of plant growth promoting bacteria. Thus, it produced indole-3-acetic, plant polymer hydrolyzing enzymes, pectinase and cellulase as well as ammonia in vitro. The isolate grew well in the presence of both 3% NaCl and 10 μg of streptomycin. In plate bioassays, isolate promoted the germination of both maize and rice seeds as well as root and lateral root growth resulting in weight increases of seedlings over their controls. Experiments to quantify ability of isolate to promote plant growth was performed using hydroponics solutions and as appropriate, an inoculum of the isolate. Pot experiments were also employed. Results from these studies showed that isolate enhanced nitrogen accumulation and significantly (p < 0.05), improved the growth of maze seedlings over controls. Isolate has potential for utilizetion as inocula for sustainable production of cereals.
Some Properties of the Thermostable Xylose Isomerase of Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus No. 31
C. Ogbo Frank,J.C. Odibo Frederick
Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The xylose/glucose isomerase of Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus No. 31, a Gram-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic, thermophilic rod is described in the continuing search for novel enzymes needed to improve industrial production of high fructose corn syrup. The organism was grown in a xylose medium and purified using four stages of chromatography. Yield of enzyme was 17.83% and specific activity, 4.62 U mg-1 protein. Native molecular weight was 160 kDa. Km and Vmax were 111 mM and 2.02 mg min-1 mg-1 protein and 334 mM and 0.92 mg min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively for xylose and glucose substrates at 60°C. Maximal enzyme activity was observed at 60°C. Activation energy was 60.35 kJ mol-1 K-1 and half-life at 70°C was 20 min. This enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 6.4 and stability at pH 7. It required divalent metals, Mn2+>Mg2+>Co2+ for activity and stability. Cu2+ inhibited enzyme activity but Ca2+ did not. The pH profile and non-inhibition by Ca2+ distinguish this enzyme from most glucose isomerases so far characterized.
Effects of diesel fuel contamination on seed germination of four crop plants - Arachis hypogaea, Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays
EM Ogbo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The effects of different levels (%) of diesel fuel contamination on four crop plants Arachis hypogaea, Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays were studied. One percent level of contamination did not significantly reduce seed germination in Z. mays and S. bicolor but did in A. hypogaea and V. unguiculata (P<0.05). The 2.00% level of contamination reduced germination in A. hypogaea. Germination was reduced with increasing levels of contamination in the four test plants. There was total inhibition of germination in S. bicolor and V. unguiculata in 4.00% level of contamination. There was no significant difference in percentage seed germination between 2.00, 3.00, and 4.00% levels of contamination in Z. mays. The 4.00% level of contamination had more deleterious effect than 5.00% for Sorghum and Vigna species. Diesel fuel contamination caused a reduction in the length of the radicle for the four crop plants and this varied with the level of contamination. It was observed that 5.00% level contamination did not affect the radicle length of V. unguiculata significantly. Diesel fuel contamination also caused a reduction in the plumule length of Z. mays and S. bicolor. The shortest plumule was recorded in 5.00% level of contamination for Z. mays and 3.00% in S. bicolor. The phytotoxicity of the different levels of diesel fuel contamination on seed germination indices thus varied with the type of crop plant. The study indicates that Z. mays and A. hypogaea have more potential for use in phytoremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils than S. bicolor and V. unguiculata.
Assessment of some locally developed technologies for shortening the retting time of cassava
FC Ogbo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: The need to shorten the time taken for cassava tuber to ret has arisen because of increased demand for processed cassava products occasioned by population growth in developing countries. Locally developed technologies aimed at this objective which involved the addition of chemical substances to steep water were assessed to determine their efficacy. Retting time measured in hours was determined during 25 retting trials using separately in each set, a control and 0.5 ml kerosene/L, 1 g trona/L and 10 g nails/L of steep water. The results reveal that addition of chemicals to various extents influenced growth of microbes and production of organic acids during cassava retting. Trona inhibited detoxification of cyanogenic glycosides while kerosene and nails did not. Statistical analysis of retting time data showed that nails were efficacious in shortening retting time but that kerosene and trona were not. The mechanism of action of nails probably involved enhancement of growth and enzyme activity of microbes involved in production of macerating enzymes responsible for softening of tubers during retting. A better understanding of this process will be useful in developing safer and efficacious chemicals for shortening the retting time of cassava
The effect of crude oil on growth of the weed (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) – phytoremediation potential of the plant
EM Ogbo, M Zibigha, G Odogu
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: The use of grasses for phytoremediation of crude oil polluted soils especially in the tropics is a new area of study with a lot of potentials. The effect of different levels (0.00, 2.50, 5.00, 7.50, 10.00, 12.50 and 15.00%) of crude oil contamination on the growth of Paspalum scrobiculatum, a common weed in Nigeria was investigated. The weed is found growing luxuriantly in crude oil contaminated sites in Delta State, Nigeria. 3, 6 and 9 plants per pot of standing crops of the test plant were used for the study. The results show that the plant has potential for phytoremediation as it grew successfully in the different levels or concentrations of crude oil contamination. The different levels of crude oil contamination caused significant reduction in the growth of the plant using plant height, fresh weight and leaf area. The effect increased with increasing levels of contamination (e.g. there was reduction in the leaf area from 68.47 cm2 in control to 34.07 cm2 in 15.00% level of contamination). The contamination did not cause significant reduction in the dry weights of the plant in 3 plants per pot and 6 plants per pot treatments but only in the 9 plants per pot treatment where the control recorded significantly higher dry weight than all other treatment. The weed can be used for the restoration of crude oil contaminated soils as it showed great potentials by being able to withstand the high levels of crude oil contamination. It was observed that crude oil contamination did not affect biomass production of the test plant using dry weight basis and plant density improved the performance of the plant in the contaminated soils.
Phytotoxicity assay of diesel fuel-spiked substrates remediated with Pleurotus tuberregium using Zea mays
E M Ogbo,A Tabuanu,R Ubebe
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2010,
Abstract: Summary: The remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum based compounds by white rot fungi is well documented. In this study the ability of diesel fuel contaminated soils treated with the fungus Pleurotus tuber-regium to support plant growth was tested. Pleurotus tuber-regium was grown in different levels (2.50, 5.00, 10.00% and control- no fungus for each level of contamination) of diesel fuel contaminated soil and sawdust. The removal of petroleum hydrocarbons was highest in the 5.00% level of contamination where 55.53% of the petroleum hydrocarbons were removed. The least reduction in hydrocarbons was in the 10.00% level of contamination where only 35.53% of the hydrocarbons were removed. After the remediation the toxicity of the soils were tested by growing Zea mays in the treated soils. There was reduction in the toxicity of the soils treated with Pleurotus tuber-regium. Germination of the seeds of the test plant in treated 2.50 and 5.00% diesel fuel contaminated substrates was higher than that in the control. Germination of seeds in the 10.00% diesel fuel contaminated substrates was less than that in the control. The continued growth of the plant in the treated soils however showed no significant difference between them and the control using leaf area, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and root length indices. The formation of lateral roots was however adversely affected in the treated 10.00% contaminated soil only substrate. The fungus was able to reduce the toxicity of diesel fuel contaminated substrates when compared with control in which there was no remediation. Industrial relevance: Nigeria is an oil producing country with heavy or high reliance on diesel fuel for use in cars and electric power generating sets. The transportation of diesel fuel is by tankers and pipelines. There have been cases of spills which has adverse effect on the environment. The study aims to solve the process of amelioration of the environment biologically by the use of white rot fungi which is more environments friendly and cheaper for a developing country like Nigeria. The assessment of the improvement of contaminated soil by the fungus is tested by using Zea mays easily obtained and cheaper too. The fungus Pleurotus tuber-regium is indigenous to Nigeria and can be used for the remediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils or substrates.
Improvement of Protein Content of Garri by Inoculation of Cassava Mash with Biomass from Palm Wine
F.C. Ogbo,J.A. Onuegbu,O.K. Achi
American Journal of Food Technology , 2009,
Abstract: This study was done to determine the suitability of the biomass contained in the dregs of palm wine, an alcoholic beverage, as an alternative to pure cultures of microorganisms suggested earlier as inocula for improving the protein and amino acid content of garri. Garri was prepared from cassava mash inoculated with 0, 1, 5 and 10% (v/w) of palm wine dregs just before dewatering and fermentation and analyzed for protein content and other characteristics. Inoculation with palm wine dregs increased microbial activity in cassava mash, particularly the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Protein composition of garri was improved and detoxification of cyanogenic glucosides was enhanced. Inoculation adversely affected mineral composition. Organoleptic analysis showed that inoculation did not reduce acceptability of garri at p<0.05.
Microbiological and Chemical Changes During Fermentation of Crabs for ogiri-nsiko Production
O.K. Achi,I.C. Anokwuru,F.C. Ogbo
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: Fresh water crab (Sudananautes africanus africanus) was processed and fermented to produce ogiri-nsiko, a type of condiment in Nigeria. During fermentation, bacterial populations, changes in pH, titratable acidity and proximate composition were measured over a 72 h period. The main microorganisms involved in the spontaneous fermentation of the crabs were, Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas sp. Variations in the important microbial groups showed that Bacillus species were the most prevalent species and occurred until the end of the fermentation. However, significant contributions were made by Staphylococcus sp. which were present in low numbers until the end of the fermentation. Fermentation increased the pH of the substrate from 6.2 to 8.4. The titratable acidity increased in the first 24 h and then dropped as fermentation progressed. Proximate composition changes showed increase in protein, ash and crude fiber contents whereas crude fat decreased significantly in fermented samples. Fermented crab as a rich source of protein, offer potential substitute for meat and cultured dairy products.
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish and Sediments from UKE Stream, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
O. D. Opaluwa,M. O. Aremu,L. O. Ogbo,J. I.magaji
Current World Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.7.2.04
Abstract: The levels of lead, zinc, copper, iron, manganese, cadmium and mercury were determined in various body parts of two species of catfish; Clarias gariepinus and Synodontis schall, water and sediment samples from Uke stream using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) method. The results obtained showed that iron (Fe) had the highest concentration with average of 8.78 mg/g and 7.51 mg/l in sediment and water respectively followed by Zn with 4.79 mg/g (sediment) and 3.19 mg/l (water) while Cd had the lowest concentration of 0.035 mg/g and 0.023 mg/l in the sediment and water respectively. In the two fish species, zinc (0.17 – 3.25 mg/g) was the most highly concentrated in the various matrices while lead (0.011 – 0.031mg/g) was the lowest. Metal levels in the various body parts of the two species of fish studied were found to be more concentrated in either, the head, gills or the intestine. In both species zinc had the widest variability while lead was the least. The metal levels determined in water and sediment are all above the tolerable limits recommended by regulatory bodies which is an indication that this ecosystem is contaminated with heavy metals which would eventually end up in the food chain. The metals determined in various body parts of two species of catfish were below deleterious level; however there is the need for regular monitoring of the heavy metal load in this water body and the aquatic organisms in there because of the long term effects.
Solution for Rational Expectation Models Free of Complex Numbers  [PDF]
Frank Hespeler
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13011
Abstract: This paper approaches the problem of the potential for complex-valued solutions within linear macroeconomic models with rational expectations. It finds that these problems are associated with a specific solution method for the underlying model. The paper establishes that the danger of complex-valued solutions always can be eliminated by forcing those solutions to fulfill additional constraints. These constraints are essentially restrictions on the degrees of freedoms in indeterminate solutions.
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