Abstract:
The quantum \chi^2-divergence has recently been introduced and applied to quantum channels (quantum Markov processes). In contrast to the classical setting the quantum \chi^2-divergence is not unique but depends on the choice of quantum statistics. In the reference [11] a special one-parameter family of quantum \chi^2_\alpha(\rho,\sigma)-divergences for density matrices were studied, and it was established that they are convex functions in (\rho,\sigma) for parameter values \alpha\in [0,1], thus mirroring the classical theorem for the \chi^2(p,q)-divergence for probability distributions (p,q). We prove that any quantum \chi^2-divergence is a convex function in its two arguments.

Abstract:
We consider both known and not previously studied trace functions with applications in quantum physics. By using perspectives we obtain convexity statements for different notions of residual entropy, including the entropy gain of a quantum channel as studied by Holevo and others. We give new and simplified proofs of the Carlen-Lieb theorems concerning concavity or convexity of certain trace functions by making use of the theory of operator monotone functions. We then apply these methods in a study of new types of trace functions. Keywords: Trace function, convexity, entropy gain, residual entropy, operator monotone function.

Abstract:
We study concave trace functions of several operator variables and formulate and prove multivariate generalisations of the Golden-Thompson inequality. The obtained results imply that certain functionals in quantum statistical mechanics have bounds of the same form as they appear in classical physics.

Abstract:
Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

Abstract:
The operator function (A,B)\to\tr f(A,B)(K^*)K, defined on pairs of bounded self-adjoint operators in the domain of a function f of two real variables, is convex for every Hilbert Schmidt operator K, if and only if f is operator convex. As a special case we obtain a new proof of Lieb's concavity theorem for the function (A,B)\to\tr A^pK^*B^{q}K, where p and q are non-negative numbers with sum p+q\le 1. In addition, we prove concavity of the operator function (A,B)\to \tr(A(A+\mu_1)^{-1}K^* B(B+\mu_2)^{-1}K) on its natural domain D_2(\mu_1,\mu_2), cf. Definition 4.1

Abstract:
We study conditional expectations generated by an abelian $ C^* $-subalgebra in the centralizer of a positive functional. We formulate and prove Jensen's inequality for functions of several variables with respect to this type of conditional expectations, and we obtain as a corollary Jensen's inequality for expectation values.

Abstract:
Wigner and Yanase introduced in 1963 the Wigner-Yanase entropy defined as minus the skew information of a state with respect to a conserved observable. They proved that the Wigner-Yanase entropy is a concave function in the state and conjectured that it is subadditive with respect to the aggregation of possibly interacting subsystems. While this turned out to be true for the quantum-mechanical entropy, we negate the conjecture for the Wigner-Yanase entropy by providing a counter example.

Abstract:
We extend Hardy's inequality from sequences of non-negative numbers to sequences of positive semi-definite operators if the parameter p satisfies 1

1. Applications to trace functions are given. We introduce the tracial geometric mean and generalize Carleman's inequality. Key words and phrases: Hardy's inequality, positive operator, trace function, geometric mean, Carleman's inequality.

Abstract:
We study trace functions on the form $ t\to\tr f(A+tB) $ where $ f $ is a real function defined on the positive half-line, and $ A $ and $ B $ are matrices such that $ A $ is positive definite and $ B $ is positive semi-definite. If $ f $ is non-negative and operator monotone decreasing, then such a trace function can be written as the Laplace transform of a positive measure. The question is related to the Bessis-Moussa-Villani conjecture. Key words: Trace functions, BMV-conjecture.

Abstract:
We prove that the functions t -> (t^q-1)(t^p-1)^{-1} are operator monotone in the positive half-axis for 0 < p < q < 1, and we calculate the two associated canonical representation formulae. The result is used to find new monotone metrics (quantum Fisher information) on the state space of quantum systems.