oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 7 of 7 matches for " Francisque Fouodji Dedzo "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /7
Display every page Item
Solution Concepts and New Optimality Conditions in Bilevel Multiobjective Programming  [PDF]
Francisque Fouodji Dedzo, Laure Pauline Fotso, Calice Olivier Pieume
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330196
Abstract: In this paper, new sufficient optimality theorems for a solution of a differentiable bilevel multiobjective optimization problem (BMOP) are established. We start with a discussion on solution concepts in bilevel multiobjective programming; a theorem giving necessary and sufficient conditions for a decision vector to be called a solution of the BMOP and a proposition giving the relations between four types of solutions of a BMOP are presented and proved. Then, under the pseudoconvexity assumptions on the upper and lower level objective functions and the quasiconvexity assumptions on the constraints functions, we establish and prove two new sufficient optimality theorems for a solution of a general BMOP with coupled upper level constraints. Two corollary of these theorems, in the case where the upper and lower level objectives and constraints functions are convex are presented.
Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)
Bruno Marchal, McDamien Dedzo, Guy Kegels
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-787
Abstract: A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information.At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff.In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital.This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work.Over the last 20 years, a number of strategies aimed at improving the performance of health services have been implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Each strategy has had its specific perspective and focused on one particular is
A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana
Bruno Marchal, McDamien Dedzo, Guy Kegels
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-24
Abstract: We developed a realist evaluation framework for hypothesis formulation, data collection, data analysis and synthesis of the findings. Focusing on the role of human resource management in hospital performance, we formulated our hypothesis around the high commitment management concept. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual and group interviews, observations and document reviews.We found that the human resource management approach (the actual intervention) included induction of new staff, training and personal development, good communication and information sharing, and decentralised decision-making. We identified 3 additional practices: ensuring optimal physical working conditions, access to top managers and managers' involvement on the work floor. Teamwork, recognition and trust emerged as key elements of the organisational climate. Interviewees reported high levels of organisational commitment. The analysis unearthed perceived organisational support and reciprocity as underlying mechanisms that link the management practices with commitment.Methodologically, we found that realist evaluation can be fruitfully used to develop detailed case studies that analyse how management interventions work and in which conditions. Analysing the links between intervention, mechanism and outcome increases the explaining power, while identification of essential context elements improves the usefulness of the findings for decision-makers in other settings (external validity). We also identified a number of practical difficulties and priorities for further methodological development.This case suggests that a well-balanced HRM bundle can stimulate organisational commitment of health workers. Such practices can be implemented even with narrow decision spaces. Realist evaluation provides an appropriate approach to increase the usefulness of case studies to managers and policymakers.In the wake of the numerous global health initiatives, the health workforce of low
Study of Multi-Origin Hazards and Assessment of Associated Risks in the Lefo Caldera (Bamenda Volcano, Cameroon Line)  [PDF]
Zangmo Tefogoum Ghislain, Nkouathio David Guimolaire, Kagou Dongmo Armand, Gountie Dedzo Merlin, Kamgang Pierre
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.511107
Abstract: The Bamenda Volcano (BV) (2621 m) is a stratovolcano situated in the Cameroon Line (CL). BV includes Mount Lefo (2534 m) which is situated on its southern slopes and contains one elliptical caldera (3 × 4 km). This caldera is propitious to farming and breeding activity. Despite these profitable assets, Lefo caldera (LC) is an amphitheater of the occurrence of multi-origin hazards that have direct or indirect impacts on the biodiversity and human patrimony. The most present hazards are those of meteorological origin. Numerous combined factors (steepest slopes, heavy rainfalls, weathered state of volcanic products…) rule these hazards. These factors gave rise to the occurrence of landslides, gullies erosion and rock falls which occur precisely on caldera northern and eastern rims. Hazards of anthropogenic origin are based on the destruction of the vegetation cover by the population for dealing, firewood and building issues. Moreover, during the breeding activity, the cattle covers the caldera throughout the day; this unevens the topography and destroys the meadow. Hazards of volcanological origin are not yet occurring in LC; but the recent Lake Monoun (1984) and Nyos (1986) CO2 eruptions, mount Cameroon eruptions (1999 and 2000) and mount Oku Lake event (2011) which are close to the BV and, the age of 0 Myr of basalt, constitutes a subject of controversy toward the reactivation of the Cameroonian hotspot faults. The assessment of risks in LC was based on the average income of breeding activity and house investment. The economy of LC is valued at about US$527472.527. The level of such risk will be important in case of loss of human beings and the destruction of geomorphosites’ values. In order to reduce the level of looses in this zone, hazard and risks maps are provided in this paper as well as some recommendations.
Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana
Margaret Kweku, Jayne Webster, Ian Taylor, Susan Burns, McDamien Dedzo
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-14
Abstract: A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC).During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions.Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making so that the delivery model with the best probability of success within a given context is implemented. Rigorous monitoring has an important role to play in the successful scaling-up of delivery of effective public health interventions.Although insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are a proven effective intervention for reducing child morbidity and mortality, coverage is still low across sub-Saharan Africa [1,2]. There is a recognized need to scale-up coverage of ITNs and other proven effective interventions in order to reach the Millennium Development Goal (M
Population-Based Tuberculosis Disease Prevalence Survey in Ghana: The Role and Lessons Learnt from the Laboratory  [PDF]
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Christian Bonsu, Ezekiel Mensah, Sarah Edusei, Prosper Dedzo, Michael Amo Omari, Samuel Kudzawu, Honesty Ganu, Samuel Kumah Atiadevie, Frank Adae Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.72009
Abstract: Background: Bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases used in calculating TB prevalence in a country are obtained through laboratory examination of sputum specimens. Objective: This article describes laboratory processing of specimens, results overview, conclusions and key lessons learnt from the perspective of laboratory personnel involved in the conduct of TB disease prevalence survey in Ghana in 2013. Methods: Symptoms screening and Chest X-ray suggestive of TB were used to select participants who produced sputum to confirm TB cases using microscopy, culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (GeneXpert). Results: A total of 15,935 single and paired sputum specimens were received from eligible participants. About half of Ziehl-Nielsen (129/263) and Auramine O (122/246) stained smear positives were scanty positive. Culture positivity rate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was 266/14,994 (1.7%) and 100/15,179 (0.7%) in Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media respectively; while non-tuberculous mycobacterium was 294/14,994 (1.96%) and 167/15,179 (1.1%). Total contamination rates in MGIT (5.4%) were higher than in LJ (1.7%). Prevalence of smear positive TB and bacteriologically confirmed TB among adult population (≥15 years) was estimated at 111 (95% CI: 76 - 145) and 356 (95% CI: 288 - 425) per 100,000 population respectively. Conclusions and Lessons Learnt: Direct supervision of specimen collection by well-trained laboratory personnel, timely transportation of specimens from field to laboratory, prompt specimen processing and use of electronic data management systems are essential for a reliable TB disease prevalence survey data. More importantly, strengthening human and logistical capacity of the laboratory must be of utmost priority.
ActA Promotes Listeria monocytogenes Aggregation, Intestinal Colonization and Carriage
Laetitia Travier,Stéphanie Guadagnini,Edith Gouin,Alexandre Dufour,Viviane Chenal-Francisque,Pascale Cossart,Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin,Jean-Marc Ghigo,Olivier Disson,Marc Lecuit
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003131
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous bacterium able to survive and thrive within the environment and readily colonizes a wide range of substrates, often as a biofilm. It is also a facultative intracellular pathogen, which actively invades diverse hosts and induces listeriosis. So far, these two complementary facets of Lm biology have been studied independently. Here we demonstrate that the major Lm virulence determinant ActA, a PrfA-regulated gene product enabling actin polymerization and thereby promoting its intracellular motility and cell-to-cell spread, is critical for bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation. We show that ActA mediates Lm aggregation via direct ActA-ActA interactions and that the ActA C-terminal region, which is not involved in actin polymerization, is essential for aggregation in vitro. In mice permissive to orally-acquired listeriosis, ActA-mediated Lm aggregation is not observed in infected tissues but occurs in the gut lumen. Strikingly, ActA-dependent aggregating bacteria exhibit an increased ability to persist within the cecum and colon lumen of mice, and are shed in the feces three order of magnitude more efficiently and for twice as long than bacteria unable to aggregate. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel function for ActA and illustrates that in addition to contributing to its dissemination within the host, ActA plays a key role in Lm persistence within the host and in transmission from the host back to the environment.
Page 1 /7
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.