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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23838 matches for " Francisco; Lazcano-Ponce "
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Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México entre 1988 y 2008
Franco-Marina,Francisco; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800006
Abstract: objetive. to describe the changes in several smoking indicators occurred in mexico over the past two decades and to explore if the tobacco control policies implemented in mexico, since 2004, show a favorable impact on tobacco consumption by 2008. materials and methods. we analyze trends in comparable data on the prevalence of never and daily smokers, using the five national addiction surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008. the analysis is restricted to persons aged 18 through 65 years. data are adjusted for age, sex and marginality index. results. between 2002 and 2008 the percentage of never smokers has increased by 19.6% and the percentage of daily smokers has decreased by 24.8%. these changes were more important in men, but in women the average number of cigarettes consumed decreased by 21.1% over the compared period and there was also a 13.9% rise in the percentage of women attempting to quit. daily smokers prevalence has declined more rapidly since 2005, coincidently with an increase in cigarette taxation. conclusions. over the past two decades there has been in mexico an increase in the percentage of never smokers and a decline in the percentage of daily smokers. a positive impact is observed, few years after the implementation of more effective tobacco control policies in mexico, notably higher taxation of tobacco products.
Breast cancer mortality in mexico: an age-period-cohort analysis
Franco-Marina,Francisco; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo; López-Carrillo,Lizbeth;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009000800005
Abstract: objective: to assess the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer (bc) mortality in mexico. material and methods: age, period and cohort curvature trends for bc mortality were estimated through the poisson regression model proposed by holford. results: nationally, bc death rates have leveled off since 1995 in most age groups. bc mortality trends are mainly determined by birth cohort and age effects in mexico. women born between 1940 and 1955 show the highest rate of increase in bc mortality. women born afterwards still show an increasing trend but at a much lower rate. mammography and adjuvant therapy have had a limited impact on mortality. potential reasons for observed patterns are discussed. an increase in bc mortality in mexico is expected in the following decades. conclusions: mammography screening programs and timely access to effective treatment should be a national priority to reverse the expected increasing bc mortality trend.
Panorama epidemiológico de la mortalidad por cáncer en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: 1991-1995
Salud Pública de México , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341997000400004
Abstract: objective. this paper describes the global cancer mortality and the specific mortality patterns for the main neoplasms among adult members of the mexican institute of social security (imss). material and methods. using official death certificates and information about the population of the imss members during 1991-1995, national and regional annual global cancer mortality as well as specific mortality rates for the 10 most important malignant neoplasms by sex were estimated among people older than 20 years of age. the trends for these neoplasms during the study period were estimated by means of poisson regression. the rate differences in specific cancer mortality by region and sex, for the two major neoplasms, were calculated subtracting specific regional rates from the respective national rate in 1995. results. the global mortality rate for cancer among men increased from 76.2 in 1991 to 94.8 x 100 000 imss′members in 1995; and among women from 85.6 to 105.8 x 100 000 imss′members, representing an increment of 24.4 and 24% men and women, respectively, during the study period. among men, neoplasm of kidney, leukemia, pancreas, prostate and lung showed the major increment; among women, neoplasm of colon, breast, pancreas, leukemia and liver showed the most significant increment. conclusions. in the imss it is necessary the integration of a population based cancer registry. the registry will play a main role in disease surveillance and control; will give basic information over incidence and temporal variation, and could be the main source of information for epidemiologic research, as well as planning and evaluation of the quality of medical attention services such as prevention and early diagnosis and treatment.
Panorama epidemiológico de la mortalidad por cáncer en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: 1991-1995
Salud Pública de México , 1997,
Abstract: Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de la mortalidad global por cáncer, así como la mortalidad específica para las principales neoplasias malignas en población adulta derechohabiente (DH) del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Material y métodos. A partir de los registros oficiales de defunción y de la información sobre la población para los a os 1991-1995, se estimaron las tasas anuales de mortalidad global y específica para las 10 principales neoplasias malignas por sexo, en mayores de 20 a os. Asimismo, se estimaron las tendencias nacionales y estatales para las principales neoplasias malignas para cada sexo por medio de regresión de Poisson. Se calcularon las diferencias de tasas de mortalidad específica para las dos principales neoplasias por sexo restando las tasas estatales a su respectiva tasa nacional en 1995. Resultados. La mortalidad global por cáncer en los hombres se incrementó de 76.2 en 1991, a 94.8 por 100 000 DH en 1995; entre las mujeres, ésta se incrementó de 85.6 a 105.8 por 100 000 DH, representando un incremento de 24.4 y de 24% en hombres y mujeres, respectivamente, durante el periodo de estudio. Entre los hombres las neoplasias de ri ón, leucemia, páncreas, próstata y pulmón; y entre mujeres las de colon, mama, páncreas, leucemias e hígado, mostraron los incrementos más significativos. Conclusiones. En el IMSS es impostergable la conformación de un registro poblacional de cáncer que permita una mejor vigilancia epidemiológica de las neoplasias y una evaluación permanente del impacto de programas específicos para la prevención y control de este padecimiento en las instituciones.
Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries
Katz,Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800018
Abstract: in developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. this article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. in mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a) mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b) educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood); c) during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d) in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e) the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f) for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g) intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h) in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i) social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences in infrastr
Intellectual disability: definition, etiological factors, classification, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis
Katz,Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800005
Abstract: etiology and classification: causal factors related with cognitive disability are multiples and can be classified as follows: genetic, acquired (congenital and developmental), environmental and sociocultural. likewise, in relation to the classification, cognitive disability has as a common denominator a subnormal intellectual functioning level; nevertheless, the extent to which an individual is unable to face the demands established by society for the individual?s age group has brought about four degrees of severity: mild, moderate, severe and profound. diagnostic: the clinical history must put an emphasis on healthcare during the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period and include the results of all previous studies, including a genealogical tree for at least three generations and an intentional search for family antecedents of mental delay, psychiatric illnesses and congenital abnormalities. the physical exam should focus on secondary abnormalities and congenital malformations, somatometric measurements and neurological and behavioral phenotype evaluations. if it is not feasible to establish a clinical diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct high-resolution cytogenetic studies in addition to metabolic clinical evaluations. in the next step, if no abnormal data are identified, submicroscopic chromosomal disorders are evaluated. prognosis: intellectual disability is not curable; and yet, the prognostic in general terms is good when using the emotional wellbeing of the individual as a parameter. conclusions: intellectual disability should be treated in a comprehensive manner. nevertheless, currently, the fundamental task and perhaps the only one that applies is the detection of the limitation and abilities as a function of subjects? age and expectations for the future, with the only goal being to provide the support necessary for each one of the dimensions or areas in which the person?s life is expressed and exposed.
Tabaquismo en profesionales de la salud del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Morelos
Salmerón-Castro,Jorge; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Campuzano-Rincón,Julio César; López-Antu?ano,Francisco J; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo C;
Salud Pública de México , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342002000700011
Abstract: objective. to assess the prevalence of tobacco smoking by work type among healthcare workers of instituto mexicano del seguro social (mexican institute of social security, imss), in morelos state, mexico. material and methods. a cross-sectional was conducted in 3 133 healthcare workers in the 23 medical units of imss morelos district, from october 1998 to march 2000. data were collected using a self-applied questionnaire on tobacco smoking for different life-stages, some demographic characteristics, and work type. the prevalence rates of smoking and 95% confidence intervals (95% ci) were estimated by age groups, gender, and work type. results. a total of 3 133 employees participated; 53.4% (95% ci 50.8-56.8) of men and 27.4% (95% ci 25.4-29.3) of women reported having smoked tobacco some time in their lives. the prevalence of current smoking was 28.3% (95% ci 25.6-31.0) and 14.4% (95% ci 12.8-15.9) in men and women, respectively. among men, physicians have a lower prevalence (20.9%) of current smoking than that of other workers; for example, the prevalence was 26,6% among technicians and 33% among administrative personnel. women in general had a lower prevalence than men in all categories, and in nurses it was still lower t(12,5%) than that of female physicians (16%). conclusions. the prevalence of tobacco smoking in healthcare workers of imss morelos was lower than that of the general population. nevertheless, it is necessary to keep working on tobacco control programs to encourage smoking cessation among healthcare workers and make them aware of the positive role they may play in promoting programs to stop tobacco smoking and nicotine addiction.
Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in Mexican adults without type 2 diabetes or hypertension
Rojas-Martínez,Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas,Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona,Aída; Gómez-Pérez,Francisco J; Barquera,Simón; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000100002
Abstract: objective: to describe the number of mexican adults with undiagnosed diabetes and arterial hypertension and their association with obesity. material and methods: the study included a sub-sample of 6 613 subjects aged 20 years or more who participated in the 2006 national health and nutrition survey (ensanut 2006). subjects with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension (n=1 861) were excluded. prevalences and standard errors were estimated, taking into account the complex sample design. results: 6.4 million adults have obesity and undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose. almost two million more have fasting glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes. as for arterial blood pressure, 5.4 million adults had prehypertension. another 5.4 million adults had blood pressure levels suggestive of probable hypertension. a total of 21.4 million mexican adults with obesity had at least one further component of the metabolic syndrome. conclusions: a large proportion of adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed in mexico.
La epidemia de tabaquismo: Epidemiología, factores de riesgo y medidas de prevención
Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo C,Hernández-Avila Mauricio
Salud Pública de México , 2002,
Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico
Rocio Parada, Rosalba Morales, Anna R Giuliano, Aurelio Cruz, Xavier Castellsague, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-25
Abstract: For the comparison of the prevalence of HPV infection in men and women, we used the MacNemar test. This test is used to prove a hypothesis of equality of proportions in non-independent groups. In this case the groups of men and women are not independent because they are sexual partners. Table 1 shows that the prevalence of HPV is greater in men than in women (20.4% vs 13.7%, p value = 0.0009). There were no statistically significant differences between type specific infection in men and women; only in types HPV31, HPV53, HPV55, HPV61 and HPV84 (Table 1 and Figure 1).The analysis of known risk factors for HPV infection was carried out separately for men and women. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed. When stratifying by sex we do not need to consider the condition of sexual partners. This part of the analysis was performed in this way, as it allows us to include explanatory variables in men - variables that cannot be defined in women, such as circumcision, use of condoms, and some specific characteristics on sexual risk behaviors. In women it allows us to consider, in addition to characteristics of their own sexual behaviors, characteristics of their male partner's sexual behavior - circumcision, use of condoms, etc. (Table 2). The last section of the study focuses on assessing the risk of HPV infection in women, considering the presence of HPV infection in their sex partners as an explanatory variable. Thus we find that women whose sexual partners are HPV positive have 5.15 times greater risk of HPV, compared to those whose partners are HPV negative (CI 95% 3.01, 8.82). Indeed, what matters to us in this part is proving that the variable "presence of HPV in male partner" be associated with the presence of HPV in the female. We do not seek to compare the risk of HPV infection between men and women (Table 3).We are thankful for your observations and deeply regret the confusion in the results presented.The pre-publication history for this paper can be acc
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