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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3375 matches for " Francesca Gallé "
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Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS: what has changed?
Giorgio Liguori,Francesca Gallé
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.2427/5986
Abstract: The Authors examine the global, European and Italian epidemiology of HIV/AIDS on the basis of more recent international and national reports. All limitations in the available data were considered. The epidemic seems to have expand in all of the areas, demonstrating the need for further interventions both in the prevention of the infection and the diffusion of antiretroviral treatments, where these are lacking.
Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in the world, Europe, Italy and Campania: an overview
Giorgio Liguori,Francesca Gallé,Paolo Marinelli
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.2427/6141
Abstract: HCV infection is today the viral epidemic disease second only to AIDS. It is estimated that 3% of the world population is infected by hepatitis C and chronic related diseases, with markedly different prevalences between different geographical areas and different categories in the same area. The Authors analyse the epidemiological data available to trace the situation worldwide, in Europe, in Italy and in Campania, currently and in the last few years. Also researched was the role that the risk factors related to the different transmission routes play in the spread of the infection. Despite the decrease in the incidence reported in recent years, the numerous cases linked to drug abuse, to infections occurring while in health care and after unsafe sexual intercourse reveal the need for further information to be spread on HCV infection and on its modes of transmission.
Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a university hospital of southern Italy
Giorgio Liguori,Paolo Villari,Stefania Boccia,Francesca Gallè
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2427/5880
Abstract: Background: In the last decades vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections. To analyze the spread and clonal relatedness of VRE, a two-year study of isolates was carried out in the hospital of the University “Federico II” in Naples. Methods: Enterococcus species were identified by using API-2 Strep and antibiotic susceptibility was determined through the use of four tests: disk diffusion, broth dilution methods, Etest and Vitek 2. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to analyse glycopeptide resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and arbitrarily primed (AP)-polymerase chain reaction were used for molecular typing of the strains. Results: Thirty-two isolates of enterococci (18 E. faecium and 14 E. faecalis) showed resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin and all the strains were vanA-positive. AP-PCR showed a unique clone of E. faecium, as well as for E. faecalis isolates. Identical results were obtained by PFGE for E. faecalis isolates, while three different PFGE patterns emerged for E. faecium. Conclusions: The low degree of genetic diversity among the isolates strongly suggests a clonal spread of antibiotic-resistant strains among hospitalized patients in high-risk wards. This report represents the first step to understanding VRE spread in our hospital as well as contributing to the comparison among different antibiotic susceptibility tests and molecular typing methods.
Compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in young and adult individuals in two regions of Italy
Antonino Parlato, Vincenzo Spica, Massimo Ciccozzi, Francesca Farchi, Francesca Gallè, Valeria Di Onofrio, Elisabetta Franco, Giorgio Liguori
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-333
Abstract: A group of 3,173 individuals were interviewed using a questionnaire. The youngest age group (≤ 20 year) was composed of students interviewed at university. The middle age group (21-40 years) and the older age group (≥ 41 years) were interviewed by general practitioners in their office.In both regions, the majority of subjects had been infected with varicella, and only 165 (5.2%) subjects reported receiving the VZV vaccination. Regarding HZ, 2,749 (86.6%) individuals stated that they knew of the virus and 2,233 (70%) were willing to be vaccinated against HZ. The majority of people willing to be vaccinated were in the middle and older age groups (36.6% and 44.7%, respectively).Compliance versus vaccination results were satisfactory and probably, with the upcoming availability of the HZ vaccine in Italy, adults will be favourably disposed towards vaccination.Worldwide, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection (chickenpox) affects millions of individuals, causing significant suffering. During primary infection, the virus migrates to the dorsal root and cranial root ganglia, where it remains latent. Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is the result of reactivation of dormant VZV in the ganglia [1]. HZ causes acute and chronic morbidity and is characterized by a painful vesicular unilateral dermatomal rash. The most common HZ complication is post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), which consists of burning pain, paresthesias, dysesthesia, pruritus, or anesthesia in the affected area and most frequently develops in subjects over 60 years of age. The risk of developing HZ in people exposed to VZV ranges from 10% to 30%, with an increased incidence in older individuals and in immunocompromised hosts [2-6]. Cell-mediate immunity (CMI) is thought to be important in defense against VZV infection. Therefore, a defective CMI is a major factor in virus reactivation [1].It has been predicted that a quarter of the general population will be affected by HZV reactivation during their lifetime [7]. In t
Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product
Giorgio Liguori, Maria Bagattini, Francesca Gallè, Mario Negrone, Valeria Di Onofrio, Maria Triassi
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-9-29
Abstract: BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples.The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners.BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.Microbial contamination of air has become of interest in the past two decades because of the correlation of sick building syndrome (SBS) with indoor air pollution [1,2]. In fact, the onset of SBS, which comprises a series of symptoms such as eye irritation, airways dryness, headache, sleepiness, and skin rash and itch, seems to be related to the presence of microbes or their components in indoor air [3-7]. Bio-contamination has the same harmful effects as chemical pollutants on the health of individuals [3]. This is important in hospital settings, especially for those units that accommodate patients with high-risk conditions [8].The main sources of microbial pollutants for indoor environments are people and air conditioning systems, which allow the survival and multiplication of microorganisms [9,10]. The dampness inside these systems, together with incorrect management of sanitization procedures, can promote the spread of microorganisms and cause transmission of many infectious diseases [4,7,9,10].In the past few years, the need to contain biological pollution in indoor environments has led to numerous strategies for the reduction of contamination of air conditioning systems, mainly in hospitals
Microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of two new biodetergents on multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens
Giorgio Liguori, Maria Bagattini, Francesca Gallè, Valeria Quartucci, Valeria Di Onofrio, Mario Negrone, Maria Triassi
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-8-35
Abstract: In-vitro antibacterial efficacy of BATT1 and BATT2 against nosocomial multidrug-resistant isolates was assessed using a suspension-inhibition test, with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA). The test was also carried out on glass surfaces with and without BSA.In vitro tests with both biocidal disinfectants at 25% concentration demonstrated an overall drop in bacterial, mould and yeast counts after 10 min of contact with or without organic substances. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was necessary to use undiluted disinfectants with and without an organic substance. The same results were obtained in tests carried out on glass surfaces for all strains.The natural products BATT1 and BATT2 behave like good biocides even in presence of organic substances. The use of both disinfectants may be beneficial for reducing hospital-acquired pathogens that are not susceptible to disinfectants.However, it has to be stressed that all these experiments were carried out in vitro and they still require validation from use in clinical practice.At present, biocides are an integral component of clinical medicine, and serve to prevent the dissemination of nosocomial pathogens in the hospital environment [1]. In the last few years, despite remarkable progress in our knowledge of risk factors, prevention and control measures, the incidence of nosocomial infections has not decreased, and many outbreaks have been caused by new multidrug-resistant pathogens that have been selected by excessive and often irrational use of antibiotics [2,3]. These microorganisms are resistant to the majority of antibiotics and to many disinfectants, which has resulted in an increase in environmental contamination [4,5]. In many cases, it has been demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for antibiotic resistance are the same as those implicated in lack of susceptibility to biocides; anyway, some biocides have the ability to select for antibiotic resistant strains and vice versa [6-10]. Also, organi
Pattern of fractures across pediatric age groups: analysis of individual and lifestyle factors
Giuliana Valerio, Francesca Gallè, Caterina Mancusi, Valeria Di Onofrio, Marianna Colapietro, Pasquale Guida, Giorgio Liguori
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-656
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was performed in the first six months of 2008 through questionnaire on a sample of children from an outpatient clinic for pediatric fractures. Differences in gender, anatomic site, circumstances and location of fracture occurrence, behavioural lifestyle, and calcium intake were investigated among three different age classes (pre-school children, school children, and adolescents).The sample consisted of 382 subjects (2-14 years of age) sustaining a fracture after low or moderate trauma. Males were at a higher risk of fractures than females; greater than two-thirds of injuries occurred after low-energy trauma and the upper limb was more frequently involved. With increasing age, the male/female ratio and time spent in sports participation increased (p < 0.001), while calcium intake and time spent in sedentary behaviors decreased (p < 0.001 and < 0.003, respectively). Gender discordance existed in pre-school children with respect to the anatomic location, and in school children and adolescents with respect to the dynamics. In the adolescent group, males were more physically active and also more sedentary than females. Fractures most frequently occurred in homes (41.6%), followed by playgrounds and footpaths (26.2%), sports facilities (18.3%), and educational facilities (13.9%), with gender differences existing only in adolescence. Twenty-three percent of the subjects sustained one or more fractures in the past. The percentage of recurrent fractures increased with age (p = 0.001), with a similar trend in both genders.Gender differences were shown in the prevalence of injuries, characteristics, and circumstances across ages. These differences may be explained by the related changes in behaviors, together with attending different places. Individual and lifestyle factors can in part explain the variability in the occurrence of fractures and can also address targeted preventive strategies.Fractures are extremely common in the pediatric age group, repr
Prevalence of overweight in children with bone fractures: a case control study
Giuliana Valerio, Francesca Gallè, Caterina Mancusi, Valeria Di Onofrio, Pasquale Guida, Antonino Tramontano, Edoardo Ruotolo, Giorgio Liguori
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-166
Abstract: Four-hundred-forty-nine children and adolescents with fracture and 130 fracture-free controls were recruited from a large children’s hospital. The interaction between overweight and gender, dynamic of trauma, site of fracture was explored. Sports participation, television viewing, and calcium intake were also investigated.Overweight/obesity rate was increased in girls with fracture either at the upper or the lower limb (p= 0.004), while it was increased only in boys with fracture at the lower limb (p <0.02). Overweight/obesity rate did not differ between groups with low or moderate trauma. TV viewing ≥ 2 hrs was more frequent in children with fractures than controls (61.5% vs 34.5%, p =0.015) in the overweight/obese group.The increased prevalence of overweight/obesity in children with fractures is related to gender and site of fracture. Higher levels of sedentary behaviours characterize overweight children reporting fractures.Children's fractures represent a common injury during childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown the role of numerous factors in determining children fractures, such as low bone mass and bone mineral density, low calcium intake, consumption of carbonated beverages, use of drugs [1-4]. In contrast to the protective effect of obesity on fracture rates in adults [5], the current literature demonstrates an increased risk for the occurrence of fractures in overweight children [6,7]. The prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled in the last decades in many regions of the world and it is now recognized as a major medical and public health problem. Great concern is turned to the skeletal conditions of obese children, in terms of disability, health-related quality of life, and health-care costs. Complications of fractures are amplified in term of increased surgical times, increased risk of wound infections, and increased time to ambulation in obese subjects [8].Obesity in children is associated with unhealthy nutrition, inactivity
Awareness of health risks related to body art practices among youth in Naples, Italy: a descriptive convenience sample study
Francesca Gallè, Caterina Mancusi, Valeria Di Onofrio, Aniello Visciano, Vincenza Alfano, Roberto Mastronuzzi, Marco Guida, Giorgio Liguori
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-625
Abstract: We investigated perceptions of and knowledge about health risks. To highlight differences among age groups, we gathered data from students at high schools and universities in the province of Naples.Of 9,322 adolescents, 31.3% were pierced and 11.3% were tattooed. Of 3,610 undergraduates, 33% were pierced and 24.5% were tattooed (p < 0.05). A higher number of females were pierced in both samples, but there were no gender differences among tattooed students. Among high school students, 79.4% knew about infectious risks and 46% about non-infectious risks; the respective numbers among university students were 87.2% and 59.1%. Only 3.5% of students in high school and 15% of university undergraduates acknowledged the risk of viral disease transmission; 2% and 3% knew about allergic risks. Among adolescents and young adults, 6.9% and 15.3%, respectively, provided signed informed consent; the former were less knowledgeable about health risks (24.7% vs. 57.1%) (p < 0.05). Seventy-three percent of the high school students and 33.5% of the university students had body art done at unauthorized facilities. Approximately 7% of both samples reported complications from their purchased body art.Results indicate a need for adequate information on health risks associated with body art among students in Naples, mainly among high school students. Therefore, adolescents should be targeted for public health education programs.Recently, piercing and tattooing have gained increasing popularity worldwide. Although the literature differs on the basis of area and population studied, it indicates that body art is increasingly accepted by all social classes and age groups, but especially by youths [1-3]. In Western society, body piercing and tattooing have become mainstream activities among adolescents (12 to 18 years of age) and young adults (18 to 25 years of age) [1,3,4]. Prevalence of body art in these age groups vary by country and setting, ranging from 6.5% to 56% for pierced subjects, and
Matching in Nonrelativistic Effective Quantum Field Theories
A. Gall
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Nonrelativstic effective field theories have shown to be a useful framework to describe systems of weakly bound particles. This work focuses on the matching procedure to the underlying relativistic theory. The concept of a physical mass in the absence of explicit Lorentz symmetry and the matching conditions for S-matrix elements and Green's functions are discussed in general for scalar particles. The effective Lagrangians of the pure particle and anti-particle sectors are constructed explicitely for a Yukawa-type interaction of a heavy and a light scalar field. Using the proper matching, it is shown that they reproduce the corresponding relativistic amplitudes in a systematic expansion in inverse powers of the heavy mass.
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