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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26909 matches for " Frances Martin "
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A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Promotion of Enjoyment of Learning in High School Students
Songsak Phusee-Orn,Frances Martin
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate factors, which promote the enjoyment of learning in high school students. The participants consisted of 331 grad 10-12 students, ranging in age from 16-18 from government and private high schools and colleges in the second semester of academic year 2007, obtained using the multi-stage random sampling technique. The research instrument used was a rating scale Questionnaire, with α-coefficient = 0.97. The data analysis employed descriptive statistics and CFA. The result of this study revealed that the weights of the nine factors involved in the promotion of enjoyment of learning ranged from 0.61-0.90 at the 0.01 level of significance. The component weights were in the following order from the highest to the lowest weight: school management, instructional management, teacher’s characteristics, students’ support, student, living with others, community, family and friends with component weights of 0.90, 0.89, 0.87, 0.84, 0.78, 0.76, 0.68, 0.67 and 0.61, respectively. The most significant component was school management in term of importance. There was the goodness of fit index between the model and the empirical data with Chi-square (χ2) of 2546.97, p = 0.66 at an degree of freedom (df) of 2578, GFI = 0.83, AGFI = 0.75, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = 0.061, SMSEA = 0.00 showing that the model had a construct validity.
Assessment and Learning Outcomes: The Evaluation of Deep Learning in an On-line Course
Frances Slack,Martin Beer,Gillian Armitt
Journal of Information Technology Education : Research , 2003,
Clinician Misperceptions about the Importance of Adolescent HPV Vaccination  [PDF]
Martin C. Mahoney, Frances G. Saad-Harfouche, Christy A. Widman, Annamaria Masucci Twarozek, Deborah O. Erwin, Elisa M. Rodriguez
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2016.61002
Abstract: Introduction: Adolescent HPV vaccination rates remain suboptimal. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes about HPV vaccine relative to other adolescent vaccines among clinical staff from primary care offices and school based clinics. Methods: We interviewed clinicians in primary care offices and school-based clinics regarding their attitudes about HPV vaccine relative to Tdap and MCV4. Results: Respondents (n = 36) included clinical staff in family medicine (47%), pediatrics (25%), obstetrics/gynecology (19%) and school-based health clinics (8%). Only 3% strongly agreed and 17% agreed that completion of HPV vaccine was more important than completion of pertussis vaccine (Tdap), while 6% strongly agreed and 33% agreed that completion of HPV vaccine was more important than completion of meningitis vaccine (MCV4). Discussion: Providing clinicians with additional information about the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and the greater risk for HPV infection/disease relative to other vaccine preventable adolescent diseases may help to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescents.
Programmed Necrosis: A Prominent Mechanism of Cell Death following Neonatal Brain Injury
Raul Chavez-Valdez,Lee J. Martin,Frances J. Northington
Neurology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/257563
Abstract: Despite the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia, neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injury remains a common cause of developmental disability. Development of rational adjuvant therapies to hypothermia requires understanding of the pathways of cell death and survival modulated by HI. The conceptualization of the apoptosis-necrosis “continuum” in neonatal brain injury predicts mechanistic interactions between cell death and hydrid forms of cell death such as programmed or regulated necrosis. Many of the components of the signaling pathway regulating programmed necrosis have been studied previously in models of neonatal HI. In some of these investigations, they participate as part of the apoptotic pathways demonstrating clear overlap of programmed death pathways. Receptor interacting protein (RIP)-1 is at the crossroads between types of cellular death and survival and RIP-1 kinase activity triggers formation of the necrosome (in complex with RIP-3) leading to programmed necrosis. Neuroprotection afforded by the blockade of RIP-1 kinase following neonatal HI suggests a role for programmed necrosis in the HI injury to the developing brain. Here, we briefly review the state of the knowledge about the mechanisms behind programmed necrosis in neonatal brain injury recognizing that a significant proportion of these data derive from experiments in cultured cell and some from in vivo adult animal models. There are still more questions than answers, yet the fascinating new perspectives provided by the understanding of programmed necrosis in the developing brain may lay the foundation for new therapies for neonatal HI. 1. Introduction Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the pediatric population [1]. The therapeutic options for neonatal HIE are limited in part because the mechanisms of cellular degeneration in the immature brain are not fully understood. These mechanisms resulting from ischemia-reperfusion, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammation among others, activate or coactivate multiple pathways of cell death. Although, necrosis was initially described as the most prominent form of cellular degeneration following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) [2, 3], research emphasis switched to the study of apoptosis (programmed cell death type I) and autophagy largely due to advances in cell biology and to experimental animal studies on the molecular dissection of pathways for apoptotic and autophagocytic initiation and execution. The significance of necrosis in neonatal HI has been difficult to
Positive Mental Health and Well-Being among a Third Level Student Population
Martin P. Davoren, Eimear Fitzgerald, Frances Shiely, Ivan J. Perry
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074921
Abstract: Introduction Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. Methods Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. Results The sample was predominantly female (62.66%), in first year (46.9%) and living in their parents’ house (42.4%) or in a rented house or flat (40.8%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04). Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001) were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. Conclusion This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across other third level institutions.
Sesquiterpenoids Lactones: Benefits to Plants and People
Martin Chadwick,Harriet Trewin,Frances Gawthrop,Carol Wagstaff
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140612780
Abstract: Sesquiterpenoids, and specifically sesquiterpene lactones from Asteraceae, may play a highly significant role in human health, both as part of a balanced diet and as pharmaceutical agents, due to their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights the role of sesquiterpene lactones endogenously in the plants that produce them, and explores mechanisms by which they interact in animal and human consumers of these plants. Several mechanisms are proposed for the reduction of inflammation and tumorigenesis at potentially achievable levels in humans. Plants can be classified by their specific array of produced sesquiterpene lactones, showing high levels of translational control. Studies of folk medicines implicate sesquiterpene lactones as the active ingredient in many treatments for other ailments such as diarrhea, burns, influenza, and neurodegradation. In addition to the anti-inflammatory response, sesquiterpene lactones have been found to sensitize tumor cells to conventional drug treatments. This review explores the varied ecological roles of sesquiterpenes in the plant producer, depending upon the plant and the compound. These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. Some sesquiterpenoid lactones are antimicrobial, disrupting the cell wall of fungi and invasive bacteria, whereas others protect the plant from environmental stresses that would otherwise cause oxidative damage. Many of the compounds are effective due to their bitter flavor, which has obvious implications for human consumers. The implications of sesquiterpenoid lactone qualities for future crop production are discussed.
The Prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a Free-Range Broiler Breeder Flock Was Primarily Affected by Flock Age
Frances M. Colles,Noel D. McCarthy,Ruth Layton,Martin C. J. Maiden
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022825
Abstract: Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.
Human NK Cell Up-regulation of CD69, HLA-DR, Interferon γ Secretion and Cytotoxic Activity by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells is Regulated through Overlapping but Different Pathways
Adel Benlahrech,Heather Donaghy,George Rozis,Martin Goodier,Linda Klavinskis,Frances Gotch,Steven Patterson
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90100386
Abstract: Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells secrete high levels of IFNa and are thus implicated in the activation of NK cells. Activated NK cells are characterised by the up-regulation of CD69 and MHC class II DR expression, secretion of IFN g and enhanced cytotoxicity. We show that pDC mediate these processes by different mechanisms, some of which overlap. Human NK cells were analysed after co-culture with immature or CpG-matured blood pDC or with supernatant from these cells. Maximal CD69 expression by NK cells was mediated by supernatant from mature pDC and did not require pDC contact. Up-regulation was due in part to IFNa but also to factors in IFNa negative supernatant from immature DC. HLA-DR expression was independent of secreted molecules but required contact with immature or mature DC. Enhanced NK cytotoxicity, measured by killing of K562 targets and expression of CD107a, was mediated by multiple factors including type I IFN, supernatant from immature pDC cultures and contact with immature or mature pDC. These factors act cumulatively to enhance cytotoxcity. Thus different parameters of pDC mediated NK cell activation are regulated by distinct pathways.
Can the concept of Health Promoting Schools help to improve students' health knowledge and practices to combat the challenge of communicable diseases: Case study in Hong Kong?
Albert Lee, Martin CS Wong, Vera MW Keung, Hilda SK Yuen, Frances Cheng, Jennifer SY Mok
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-42
Abstract: A cross-sectional study using multi-stage random sampling was conducted among schools with awards (HSA) and those schools not involved in the award scheme nor adopting the concept of HPS (non-HPS). For HSA group, 5 primary schools and 7 secondary schools entered the study with 510 students and 789 students sampled respectively. For the 'Non-HPS' group, 8 primary schools and 7 secondary schools entered the study with 676 students and 725 students sampled respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the measuring instrument.Students in the HSA category were found to be better with statistical significance in personal hygiene practice, knowledge on health and hygiene, as well as access to health information. HSA schools were reported to have better school health policy, higher degrees of community participation, and better hygienic environment.Students in schools that had adopted the HPS framework had a more positive health behaviour profile than those in non-HPS schools. Although a causal relationship is yet to be established, the HPS appears to be a viable approach for addressing communicable diseases.Health behaviours are strongly determined by the different social, economic and environmental circumstances of individuals and populations. Improvement of health literacy can help individuals to tackle the determinants of health better as it builds up the personal, cognitive and social skills which determine the ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use of information to promote and maintain good health [1]. Schools are essential in helping students to achieve health literacy [2]. The concept of the health promoting school (HPS) has been advocated as an effective approach to promote health in schools [3,4]. It embodies a holistic, whole school approach in which a broad health education curriculum is supported by the environment and ethos of the school and shifts health into a more dynamic and political domain to address the determinants
Obesity and nutrition behaviours in Western and Palestinian outpatients with severe mental illness
David Jakabek, Frances Quirk, Martin Driessen, Yousef Aljeesh, Bernhard T Baune
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-159
Abstract: A total of 665 responses were obtained from patients with serious mental illness attending out-patient clinics in Western developed countries (Germany, UK and Australia; n = 518) and Palestine (n = 147). Patients were evaluated by ICD-10 clinical diagnosis, anthropometric measurements and completed a self-report measure of frequencies of consuming different food items and reasons for eating. Nutritional habits were compared against a Western normative group.More participants from Palestine were overweight or obese (62%) compared to Western countries (47%). In the Western sample, obese patients reported consuming more low-fat products (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.02-6.33) but also greater eating due to negative emotions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.31-2.60) than patients with a healthy body-mass index. In contrast, obese patients from Palestine reported increased consumption of unhealthy snacks (OR 3.73 95% CI 1.16-12.00).Patients with mental illness have poorer nutritional habits than the general population, particularly in Western nations. Separate interventions to improve nutritional habits and reduce obesity are warranted between Western nations and Palestine.People with severe mental illness (SMI) have been shown to be more overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25), obese (BMI ≥ 30), and have poorer nutritional status than the general population [1,2]. As a result of these levels of obesity, people with psychiatric disorders are at a greater risk of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases [3-6]. With an increase in obesity across both developing and developed countries [7] the health consequences for people with a psychiatric illness increases the likelihood of negative outcomes and adds to the burden of disease.The majority of research between SMI and obesity has primarily focused on people in Western nations and thus there is limited evidence to indicate whether these results can generalise to Middle Eastern nations. Associations between obesity and depression wer
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