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Connectivism: Its Place in Theory-Informed Research and Innovation in Technology-Enabled Learning
Frances Bell
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2011,
Abstract: The sociotechnical context for learning and education is dynamic and makes great demands on those trying to seize the opportunities presented by emerging technologies. The goal of this paper is to explore certain theories for our plans and actions in technology-enabled learning. Although presented as a successor to previous learning theories, connectivism alone is insufficient to inform learning and its support by technology in an internetworked world. However, because of its presence in massive open online courses (MOOCs), connectivism is influential in the practice of those who take these courses and who wish to apply it in teaching and learning. Thus connectivism is perceived as relevant by its practitioners but as lacking in rigour by its critics. Five scenarios of change are presented with frameworks of different theories to explore the variety of approaches educators can take in the contexts for change and their associated research/evaluation. I argue that the choice of which theories to use depends on the scope and purposes of the intervention, the funding available to resource the research/evaluation, and the experience and philosophical stances of the researchers/practitioners.
The agency of students, teachers and learning technologists
Frances Bell
Research in Learning Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v17i2.10865
Abstract: The articles in this issue reveal the commitment of ALT-J to publish research that addresses the perspectives of a range of stakeholders in learning technology: in this case, students, teachers and learning technologists themselves. Although the articles are wide-ranging in their scope and approaches, we can detect some important and common themes. The first of these is agency: learning technology research can fall into the trap of focusing on the technology that is offered rather than what people do with or without it. The second is online discussion: although computer conferencing has been used in education since the 1980s, student engagement remains a thorny issue for practice, and one that demands additional research. Thirdly, the role of learning technologists remains in question: how can they support staff and students through their practice and research?
The implication of context in applying learning technologies
Frances Bell
Research in Learning Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v18i1.10671
Abstract: The six articles in this issue offer guidance to educators in the application of learning technology in different contexts. The first three articles are aimed at those employing learning technology on specific educational contexts – informal and formal – whilst the fourth deals with inclusion countrywide. The last two articles offer valuable insights into learner behaviours and skills in changing technological contexts.
The role of people and organisations in learning technology practice
Frances Bell
Research in Learning Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v19i2.9549
Abstract: This issue of Research in Learning Technology reflects the importance of people and organisations in the effective application of learning technology. Our journal aims (amongst other goals) to spread good practice in the use of learning technology, and the papers in this issue can help to achieve this aim. Creating an issue is as much about happenstance as planning but it is always interesting to see what the assembled papers have in common. In this collection of papers, there is a strong practice theme emerging.
Reviewers for Volumes 17 – 19
Frances Bell,Rhona Sharpe
Research in Learning Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v20i0.18532
Reviewers for volumes 15, 16 and 17.1
Rhona Sharpe,Frances Bell
Research in Learning Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v17i2.10872
Abstract: The editors would like to thank the following reviewers for their contribution to volumes 15, 16 and 17.1 of ALT-J:
Editorial: Going for gold: Research in Learning Technology makes the switch to a fully Open Access publishing model
Frances Bell,Seb Schmoller,Rhona Sharpe
Research in Learning Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v20i0/17163
Learning and teaching in Immersive Virtual Worlds
Frances Bell,Maggi Savin-Baden,Robert Ward
Research in Learning Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v16i3.10892
Abstract: This special issue comprises a number of exciting initiatives and developments that begin to put issues of learning in immersive virtual worlds centre stage. Although learning through specific types of serious games has been popular for some years, the pedagogical value of immersive worlds is currently not only inchoate but also under-researched. Whilst several of the articles here are not based on empirical research, what they do offer is new ways of considering the pedagogical purposes of using these kinds of digital spaces. The difficulty with the perception of immersive virtual worlds is that there is often a sense that they are seen as being dislocated from physical spaces, and yet they are not. Web spaces are largely viewed as necessarily freer locations where there is a sense that it is both possible and desirable to ‘do things differently'.
Consultant Input in Acute Medical Admissions and Patient Outcomes in Hospitals in England: A Multivariate Analysis
Derek Bell, Adrian Lambourne, Frances Percival, Anthony A. Laverty, David K. Ward
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061476
Abstract: Recent recommendations for physicians in the UK outline key aspects of care that should improve patient outcomes and experience in acute hospital care. Included in these recommendations are Consultant patterns of work to improve timeliness of clinical review and improve continuity of care. This study used a contemporaneous validated survey compared with clinical outcomes derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, between April 2009 and March 2010 from 91 acute hospital sites in England to evaluate systems of consultant cover for acute medical admissions. Clinical outcomes studied included adjusted case fatality rates (aCFR), including the ratio of weekend to weekday mortality, length of stay and readmission rates. Hospitals that had an admitting Consultant presence within the Acute Medicine Unit (AMU, or equivalent) for a minimum of 4 hours per day (65% of study group) had a lower aCFR compared with hospitals that had Consultant presence for less than 4 hours per day (p<0.01) and also had a lower 28 day re-admission rate (p<0.01). An ‘all inclusive’ pattern of Consultant working, incorporating all the guideline recommendations and which included the minimum Consultant presence of 4 hours per day (29%) was associated with reduced excess weekend mortality (p<0.05). Hospitals with >40 acute medical admissions per day had a lower aCFR compared to hospitals with fewer than 40 admissions per day (p<0.03) and had a lower 7 day re-admission rate (p<0.02). This study is the first large study to explore the potential relationships between systems of providing acute medical care and clinical outcomes. The results show an association between well-designed systems of Consultant working practices, which promote increased patient contact, and improved patient outcomes in the acute hospital setting.
Empowerment interventions, knowledge translation and exchange: perspectives of home care professionals, clients and caregivers
Denise Tribble, Frances Gallagher, Linda Bell, Chantal Caron, Pierre Godbout, Jeannette Leblanc, Pascale Morin, Marianne Xhignesse, Louis Voyer, Mélanie Couture
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-177
Abstract: The qualitative design chosen is a fourth generation evaluation combined with case studies. A home care team of a health and social services center situated in the Eastern Townships (Québec, Canada) will be involved at every step in the study. A sample will be formed of 15 health care professionals and 30 of their home care clients and caregiver. Semi-structured interviews, observations of home care interventions and socio-demographic questionnaires will be used to collect the data. Nine instruments used by the team in prior studies will be adapted and reviewed. A personal log will document the observers' perspectives in order to foster objectivity and the focus on the intervention. The in-depth qualitative analysis of the data will illustrate profiles of enabling interventions and individual empowerment.The ongoing process to transform the health care and social services network creates a growing need to examine intervention practices of health care professionals working with clients receiving home care services. This study will provide the opportunity to examine how the intervention process plays out in real-life situations and how health care professionals, clients and caregivers experience it. The intervention process and individual empowerment examined in this study will enhance the growing body of knowledge about empowerment.This study is part of a process to transform health care practices with the aim of strengthening empowerment of clients with chronic health problems. To achieve this objective, an in-depth analysis of home care interventions will be undertaken using an evolving model of empowerment interventions (enabling interventions). The intervention indicators were derived from the findings of previous studies [1-6].This study is concept-oriented and empirical in nature and will help to further refine interventions supporting empowerment. It is in line with the reform of the Québec health care system that calls for a transition of services from health
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