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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8750 matches for " Fran?ois Prince "
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Physical Activity and Obesity: Biomechanical and Physiological Key Concepts
Julie Nantel,Marie-Eve Mathieu,Fran ois Prince
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/650230
Abstract: Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are often associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical activity is recommended to reduce excess body weight, prevent body weight regain, and decrease the subsequent risks of developing metabolic and orthopedic conditions. However, the impact of OW and OB on motor function and daily living activities must be taken into account. OW and OB are associated with musculoskeletal structure changes, decreased mobility, modification of the gait pattern, and changes in the absolute and relative energy expenditures for a given activity. While changes in the gait pattern have been reported at the ankle, knee, and hip, modifications at the knee level might be the most challenging for articular integrity. This review of the literature combines concepts and aims to provide insights into the prescription of physical activity for this population. Topics covered include the repercussions of OW and OB on biomechanical and physiological responses associated with the musculoskeletal system and daily physical activity. Special attention is given to the effect of OW and OB in youth during postural (standing) and various locomotor (walking, running, and cycling) activities.
Balance, Falls-Related Self-Efficacy, and Psychological Factors amongst Older Women with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Case-Control Study
Annick Champagne,Franois Prince,Vicky Bouffard,Danik Lafond
Rehabilitation Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/430374
Abstract: Objective. To investigate balance functions in older women and evaluate the association of the fear-avoidance beliefs model (FABM) factors with balance and mobility performance. Participants. Fifteen older women with CLBP was compared with age-matched pain-free controls ( ?? = 1 5 ). Main Outcome Measures. Pain intensity, falls-related self-efficacy and intrinsic constructs in the FABM were evaluated. Postural steadiness (centre of pressure (COP)) and mobility functions were assessed. Linear relationships of FABM variables with COP and mobility score were estimated. Results. CLBP showed lower mobility score compared to controls. CLBP presented lower falls-related self-efficacy and it was associated with reduced mobility scores. FABM variables and falls-related self-efficacy were correlated with postural steadiness. Physical activity was reduced in CLBP, but no between-group difference was evident for knee extensor strength. No systematic linkages were observed between FABM variables with mobility score or postural steadiness. Conclusions. Back pain status affects balance and mobility functions in older women. Falls-related self-efficacy is lower in CLBP and is associated with reduced mobility. Disuse syndrome in CLBP elderly is partly supported by the results of this preliminary study. 1. Introduction Back pain is among the most important factors affecting health status and functional capacity in elderly people [1], with a prevalence of 12 to 42% in subjects over 65 years of age [1]. It is more common in older women than in men [2], and women are more likely to have pain for prolonged periods [3]. Leveille et al. [1] determined that severe back pain increases the likelihood of disability by 3- to 4-fold, whereas mild or moderate back pain is not associated with reduced functional activities of daily living. Low back pain (LBP) was found to be related to 2-fold greater difficulty in daily living activities and the risk of falling [4]. Episodic chronic low back pain (CLBP) with advancing in age may cause neurophysiological changes that could further impact age-related deterioration of postural control [5]. According to the FABM [6], pain-related behaviours such as avoidance of physical activity and hypervigilance are consequences of catastrophizing misinterpretations or thoughts/beliefs triggered by pain experience. In young adults with CLBP, elevation of pain-related fear leads to heighten disability [7]. However, there is increasing evidence that pain-related fear does not systematically influence physical activity reduction or the emergence of the
Aging Worsens the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Postural Control
Rébecca Robillard, Franois Prince, Daniel Filipini, Julie Carrier
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028731
Abstract: Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.
Physical Activity and Obesity: Biomechanical and Physiological Key Concepts
Julie Nantel,Marie-Eve Mathieu,Franois Prince
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/650230
Abstract: Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are often associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical activity is recommended to reduce excess body weight, prevent body weight regain, and decrease the subsequent risks of developing metabolic and orthopedic conditions. However, the impact of OW and OB on motor function and daily living activities must be taken into account. OW and OB are associated with musculoskeletal structure changes, decreased mobility, modification of the gait pattern, and changes in the absolute and relative energy expenditures for a given activity. While changes in the gait pattern have been reported at the ankle, knee, and hip, modifications at the knee level might be the most challenging for articular integrity. This review of the literature combines concepts and aims to provide insights into the prescription of physical activity for this population. Topics covered include the repercussions of OW and OB on biomechanical and physiological responses associated with the musculoskeletal system and daily physical activity. Special attention is given to the effect of OW and OB in youth during postural (standing) and various locomotor (walking, running, and cycling) activities. 1. Introduction Excess body weight and a low level of physical activity are closely linked. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey showed that obesity rates in adults were significantly higher in sedentary men (27%) compared to both moderately active (17%) and active individuals (20%) [1]. The rates of obesity were also higher in sedentary (27%) and moderately active women (21%) than in active women (14%) [1]. The Copenhagen City Heart Study also showed cross-sectionally that individuals with a high body mass index [(BMI, in kg of body mass × (height in m)?2]) are more sedentary than those with a lower BMI [2]. However, the longitudinal portion of the study, where 5142 individuals were evaluated every 5?years over a 15-year period, revealed novel findings: (1) physical inactivity at one point in time was not associated with the subsequent development of obesity (OB) while (2) the development of OB was associated to the subsequent reduction in physical activity levels [2]. These findings apply to adults, and Shields [3] proposed, based on this cross-sectional study, that physical activity levels of children do not differ according to body weight status when the overall activity level is considered. Fulton et al. (2009) reported that physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity correlates negatively with two adiposity indexes: BMI and fat mass index,
Clinical Validation of Computer-Assisted Navigation in Total Hip Arthroplasty
Eric Beaumont,Pierre Beaumont,Daniel Odermat,Isabelle Fontaine,Herbert Jansen,Fran ois Prince
Advances in Orthopedics , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/171783
Abstract: A CT-based navigation system is helpful to evaluate the reamer shaft and the impactor position/orientation during unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA). The main objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the Navitrack system by measuring the implant's true anteversion and inclination, based on pre- and postoperative CT scans (=9 patients). The secondary objective is to evaluate the clinical validity of measurements based on postop anteroposterior (AP) radiographs for determining the cup orientation. Postop CT-scan reconstructions and postop planar radiographs showed no significant differences in orientation compared to peroperative angles, suggesting a clinical validity of the system. Postoperative AP radiographs normally used in clinic are acceptable to determine the cup orientation, and small angular errors may originate from the patient position on the table.
Center of Mass Compensation during Gait in Hip Arthroplasty Patients: Comparison between Large Diameter Head Total Hip Arthroplasty and Hip Resurfacing
Vicky Bouffard,Julie Nantel,Marc Therrien,Pascal-André Vendittoli,Martin Lavigne,Franois Prince
Rehabilitation Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/586412
Abstract: Objective. To compare center of mass (COM) compensation in the frontal and sagittal plane during gait in patients with large diameter head total hip arthroplasty (LDH-THA) and hip resurfacing (HR). Design. Observational study. Setting. Outpatient biomechanical laboratory. Participants. Two groups of 12 patients with LDH-THA and HR recruited from a larger randomized study and 11 healthy controls. Interventions. Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures. To compare the distance between the hip prosthetic joint center (HPJC) and the COM. The ratio ( ) and the variability ( ) were compared between groups. Hip flexor, abductor, and adductor muscle strength was also correlated between groups while radiographic measurements were correlated with the outcome measures. Results. In the frontal plane, HR shows less variability than healthy controls at push-off and toe-off and is correlated with the muscle strength ratios ( ) at heel contact, maximal weight acceptance, and mid stance. In the sagittal plane, LDH-THA has a higher than healthy controls at push-off, and is significantly correlated with . Conclusions. One year after surgery, both groups of patients, LDH-THA and HR, demonstrate minor compensations at some specific instant of the gait cycle, in both frontal and sagittal planes. However, their locomotion pattern is similar to the healthy controls. 1. Introduction Hip arthroplasty has become a standard procedure [1–3] to improve quality of life [4], restore physical capacities, relieve patients from pain [5, 6], and provide better hip function [5, 7] and stability [8]. Since younger patients are now more frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) [9], expectations of outcome after hip arthroplasty have changed. Indeed, patients not only want to get back to their daily living activities but also wish to return to a high level of physical activity [10], as soon as possible. The techniques available to treat the young patients with advanced OA, include, among others, total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hip resurfacing (HR). During THA procedure, a stem is inserted in the femoral canal while the femoral head and neck are resected and replaced by a femoral head of 28?mm diameter, articulating with a cup inserted in the acetabulum cavity (Figure 1(a)). Over the years, THA has proved its worthiness and is now recognized as an effective, reproducible and frequently used therapeutic option [11–13]. As for HR technique, the femoral head and acetabulum are shaped and covered with implants, using a large diameter femoral head size. This technique preserved more bone and became
Comparison of locomotor pattern between idiopathic scoliosis patients and control subjects
Prince Franois,Charbonneau Mathieu,Lemire Geneviève,Rivard Charles-Hilaire
Scoliosis , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1748-7161-5-s1-o34
Abstract:
Clinical Validation of Computer-Assisted Navigation in Total Hip Arthroplasty
Eric Beaumont,Pierre Beaumont,Daniel Odermat,Isabelle Fontaine,Herbert Jansen,Franois Prince
Advances in Orthopedics , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/171783
Abstract: A CT-based navigation system is helpful to evaluate the reamer shaft and the impactor position/orientation during unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA). The main objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the Navitrack system by measuring the implant's true anteversion and inclination, based on pre- and postoperative CT scans ( patients). The secondary objective is to evaluate the clinical validity of measurements based on postop anteroposterior (AP) radiographs for determining the cup orientation. Postop CT-scan reconstructions and postop planar radiographs showed no significant differences in orientation compared to peroperative angles, suggesting a clinical validity of the system. Postoperative AP radiographs normally used in clinic are acceptable to determine the cup orientation, and small angular errors may originate from the patient position on the table. 1. Introduction The orientation of the acetabular component has been shown to be a significant factor affecting the risk of dislocation, impingement, and wear between components in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) [1–3]. The prevalence of implant dislocation following THA ranges between 1% and 5% and represents a significant cause of early failure [4–7]. In addition to dislocation, implant impingement causes excessive wear of the cup liner through the impaction of the neck and creation of debris, a contributor to implant loosening via bone resorption. Therefore, a proper implant positioning is essential in order to reduce the incidence of impingement and the risk of associated complications. Despite the availability of many techniques of stabilizing and positioning the pelvis during the surgical procedure, many surgeons admit that it is difficult to know precisely how the patient’s pelvis is oriented during surgery. This may lead to improper cup placement when using mechanical guides [8–10]. To improve this particular phase of the surgery, a navigation system was designed to help surgeons to evaluate the reamer and the impactor position/orientation during surgery. This system’s precision is crucial because it can have a direct effect on the final cup placement [11, 12]. Several validation studies using plastic bone models and cadavers were undertaken by Orthosoft Inc. to assess the system’s accuracy, which demonstrated a global error in cup orientation ( 2 in 95% of cases and 5 for 99% of cases, unpublished data). To evaluate the system’s accuracy with patients, data was gathered to estimate the system’s validity. In this regard, the precision and validity of the
The Changes in Cameroon’s Public Television in the Advent of Digital Switchover: The Impact of Technological Innovation on Audio-Visual Public Policies  [PDF]
Franois Wakata Bolvine
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.51001
Abstract: Technological innovation strongly impacts the lives of citizens as a whole and is followed by serious consequences on national public policies and on the sector directly concerned. The dynamics of change in the national audio-visual landscape with the public service television engaged in the digital switch-over process is indeed the core of this study. It reveals how innovation has impelled policy-makers to develop a comprehensive strategy, leading to objectives and decisions to completely reshape the national audio-visual landscape with regard to legal, institutional, infrastructural, economic and cultural aspects; and, specifically, public television in its organization, functioning, mission as well as in its uses.
Media and Justice in Cameroon or the Dynamics of a Dual Interaction  [PDF]
Franois Wakata Bolvine
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52006
Abstract: Information on justice in Cameroon examines the balance of power between justice and the media in an environment characterised by an interaction highlighting tension between the objectives of the field of journalism confronted with constrains and the rigours of a judicial environment that preserves its tenets. Referring to the TOURAINE approach which associates the sociology of action with the theory of conflicts, prompts strategies of actors vacillating between conflict and collaboration, in a dynamics with well-defined requirements: if legal matters easily become media events, the contrary, namely the influence of justice by the press is hardly recognised by the judge, confronted with the norms governing his socio-professional group. Influence, if necessary, emerges from two narrow channels: speedy proceedings and exemplary sentence.
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