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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 180451 matches for " Fran?ois De Beaufort "
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Terrestrial mammal fauna and threatened species in France
Franois De Beaufort,Hervé Maurin,Patrick Haffner
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 1996, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-8.1-2-4089
Abstract: With the passing of time, the terrestrial mammal fauna changed considerably in France: definitive extinctions, temporary disappearances, natural reapparitions, introductions and reintroductions. 21 species are considered as threatened (endangered and vulnerab1e) and two have completely disappeared. However, more precise data are needed for a few of them.
Ethical Decision-Making in Clinical Nutritional Practice  [PDF]
Franois P. R. de Villiers
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26089
Abstract: Ethics requires a critical evaluation of assumptions and arguments about norms and values; what should be done and what should not. Practitioners should practice ethically, and the professions should be at the forefront of applied ethics. There are four principles, patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, which are guides to ethical day-to-day practice. Patient autonomy: Autonomy means self-rule by persons of their thoughts and actions. Patient autonomy requires the practitioner to realise that patients have the right to be involved in decision-making on their own behalf. Beneficence refers to the duty of the practitioner to do the best for the patient. The benefits of breast-feeding are many, and the eventual outcome on health enormous. Nevertheless, health-care workers are diffident in promoting breast-feeding, and readily accept excuses for not breast-feeding, contrary to the principle of beneficence. Non-maleficence refers to the duty of the practitioner not to do harm; it requires the practitioner to withhold harmful therapies; Vitamin E, for example, has been proven to be ineffective as an antioxidant in humans, and large doses have been proven to increase mortality. Yet these are the doses available in supermarkets and “Health shops”. Nutritionists should actively advise against harmful “dietary supplementation”. Distributive justice requires every patient to have an equal opportunity to obtain appropriate therapy. There are relatively few nutritionists and dieticians in South Africa, and indeed in the entire African continent, but proportionately even fewer in the areas of greatest need. A case illustrates the application of these ethical principles to show how they can be applied to our daily practice. Using these four principles is a practical approach to solving ethical dilemmas.
Thérèse et Margot
Franois de?Graux
Atelier du Centre de Recherches Historiques , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/acrh.1395
Abstract: On conna t la virulente animosité de Fougeret de Monbron à l’égard de Boyer d’Argens, maintes fois exprimée, et dont l’origine remonte vraisemblablement à la débacle de Fougeret dans la lutte d’influence qui l’opposa à d’Argens auprès de Frédéric II. Cet antagonisme tenace et véhément pourrait, indirectement, conforter l’attribution de Thérèse Philosophe (1748) à Boyer d’Argens. D’assez nombreux indices, en effet, permettent de proposer une lecture de Margot la Ravaudeuse (1751) sous l’aspect...
Un nouvel Alexandre mamelouk, al-Malik al-Ashraf Khal l et le regain eschatologique du XIIIe siècle A “Mamluk Alexander”, al-Malik al-Ashraf Khalil and the revival of eschatology in the 13th century.
Franois de Polignac
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.273
Abstract: Dans la longue inscription qui exalte ses hauts faits à l'entrée de la citadelle d'Alep, le sultan mamelouk al-Malik al-Ashraf Khalil (689/1290-692/1294) est qualifié d' Alexandre de son temps . Bien que l'épithète ait été utilisée avant lui par des émirs turcs et par Baybars, elle re oit une signification particulière en raison de ses victoires éclatantes remportées contre les Francs et les Arméniens et, en conséquence, de ses espoirs de reconquête de l'Irak sur les Mongols. La dynastie mongole des Ilkhans, qui régnait sur la Perse, se réclamait d'un Alexandre devenu un héros national iranien. L'Alexandre qu'évoque al-Malik al-Ashraf est plus proche de l' Homme aux deux cornes qui, dans le Coran, édifie le mur contre Gog et Magog. Les exploits du sultan, dont l'ambition était de restaurer le califat à Bagdad, acquéraient ainsi une dimension eschatologique qui faisait de lui à la fois un conquérant universel et le fondateur d'une nouvelle ère de l'islam. In the long inscription that runs above the main entrance of thefortress in Aleppo, the Mamluk sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf Khalil (689/1290-692/1294) is called “the Alexander of his time”. Though he was neither the first nor the only Mamluk sovereign to use this title (Baybars apparently first introduced it), al-Malik al-Ashraf gave it a specific meaning inspired by his own military successes and his hopes of recovering the lands seized by the Mongols in 1258. The Mongol kings of the Ilkhan dynasty who reigned over Persia and Irak would themselves be compared with Alexander in the early 14th century, but their claim was inspired by the legends which, since Ferdowsi's Shàh-nama, had reshaped the Macedonian king into the figure of a national hero. The Alexander whom al-Malik al-Ashraf was referring to was closer to the inspired “He with the double horn” (Dhü l-Qarnayn) of the Coran, who had built the wall enclosing the wicked tribes of Gog and Magog until the Judgment-day. Thus, the victorious sultan who was preparing to expel from Irak the Mongols assimilated to Gog and Magog, and to reestablish the Abbassid califate in Bagdad, could give the dimension of eschatology to his deeds and appear both as a universal conqueror and the founder of a new era of islam.
Correction: Viruses' Life History: Towards a Mechanistic Basis of a Trade-Off between Survival and Reproduction among Phages
Franois Taddei,Marianne De Paepe
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040273
Viruses' Life History: Towards a Mechanistic Basis of a Trade-Off between Survival and Reproduction among Phages
Marianne De Paepe,Franois Taddei
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040193
Abstract: Life history theory accounts for variations in many traits involved in the reproduction and survival of living organisms, by determining the constraints leading to trade-offs among these different traits. The main life history traits of phages—viruses that infect bacteria—are the multiplication rate in the host, the survivorship of virions in the external environment, and their mode of transmission. By comparing life history traits of 16 phages infecting the bacteria Escherichia coli, we show that their mortality rate is constant with time and negatively correlated to their multiplication rate in the bacterial host. Even though these viruses do not age, this result is in line with the trade-off between survival and reproduction previously observed in numerous aging organisms. Furthermore, a multiple regression shows that the combined effects of two physical parameters, namely, the capsid thickness and the density of the packaged genome, account for 82% of the variation in the mortality rate. The correlations between life history traits and physical characteristics of virions may provide a mechanistic explanation of this trade-off. The fact that this trade-off is present in this very simple biological situation suggests that it might be a fundamental property of evolving entities produced under constraints. Moreover, such a positive correlation between mortality and multiplication reveals an underexplored trade-off in host–parasite interactions.
Validation of an In Vitro Model to Study Human Cartilage Responses to Compression  [PDF]
Natalia de Isla, Céline Huselstein, Didier Mainard, Jean-Franois Stoltz
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B016

The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model to study mechanical compression effects on cartilage. A pressure-controlled compression device was used in this study. Cartilage explants obtained from human knee were compressed at 1MPa/1Hz for 7 hours (30 min ON, 30 min OFF) under normoxia (5% CO2, 21% O2) or hypoxia (5% CO2, 5% O2). Cell viability was analyzed while nitric oxide (NO) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) release was assayed in culture media. Mechanical stimulation increased NO production and GAG release by human cartilage explants under normoxia and hypoxia culture. In normoxia and hypoxia conditions, mechanical stimulation alters human OA cartilage metabolism. There is also, an increase in matrix degradation after compression, as shown by levels of GAG found in culture media. This study put in evidence the importance of mechanical compression in the progression of the osteoarthritis and present and in vitro model for mechanobiological and pharmacological studies.

Fluid intellingence and spatial reasoning as predictors of pilot training performance in the South African Air Force (SAAF)
Franois de Kock,Anton Schlechter
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v35i1.753
Abstract: Pilot selection is a form of high-stakes selection due to the massive costs of training, high trainee ability requirements and costly repercussions of poor selection decisions. This criterion-related validation study investigated the predictive ability of fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning in predicting three criteria of pilot training performance, using an accumulated sample of South African Air Force pilots (N = 108). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses with training grade achieved as criterion were performed for each of the phases of training, namely practical flight training, ground school training, and officers’ formative training. Multiple correlations of 0.35 (p < 0.01), 0.20 (p > 0.05) and 0.23 (p > 0.05) were obtained for flight, ground school and formative training results, respectively. Spatial ability had incremental validity over fluid intelligence for predicting flight training performance. How to cite this article: De Kock, F., & Schlechter, A. (2009) Fluid intellingence and spatial reasoning as predictors of pilot training performance in the South African Air Force (SAAF). SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 35(1), Art. #753, 8 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v35i1.753
Where mathematics becomes Political. representing (Non-)Humans
Karen Franois,Laurent De Sutter
Philosophica , 2004,
Versions récentes de la légende de Tristan et Iseut au cinéma : entre prosa sme et puérilité y avait-il un autre choix ?
Franois Amy de la Bretèque
Babel : Littératures Plurielles , 2012,
Abstract: Si la légende de Tristan et Iseult est devenue un des thèmes culturels médiévaux les plus populaires à notre époque, et donc les plus productifs, cela ne remonte qu’au début du siècle dernier, siècle qui vit justement la naissance du cinéma. Un examen de la production récente permet de vérifier que deux pièges ont toujours guetté les adaptations cinématographiques de cette matière : l’édulcoration puérile ou la surenchère barbarisante. On part ici du film méconnu d’Yvan Lagrange (1973) pour arriver au dessin animé de Thierry Schiel (2002) en passant par le Connemara de Louis Grospierre (1988) puis on élargit le champ, en evisageant les adaptations non directes. On vérifie alors que, de La Femme d’à c té (Truffaut 1981) à Mauvais sang (Carax 1986), les films les plus fidèles à l’esprit sont ceux qui pratiquent une intertextualité libre et inventive.
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