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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8317 matches for " Fran?ois Cougoule "
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Towards Urban High-technolgy Clusters: An International Comparison
Júlia Bosch,Laura Capel,Franois Cougoule,Gissel Ferrari
Urbani Izziv , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a comparative study of 23 urban or regional high-technology clusters (media, ICT, energy, biotechnology) all over the world, analyzing how they were created, how they are managed and how they operate, and the strategies followed to improve and excel in their fields of action. Special attention is given to issues related to descriptive aspects, R&D, performance of the clusters, location factors and incentives to attract companies. The empirical analysis applied to the identified clusters was done through a questionnaire sent to the representatives of the cluster’s management. When analyzing the data, the study has combined quantitative and qualitative methods, depending on the information to be processed. The data collection was done through a selection of indicators chosen in order to cover the different elements that cluster literature coincide in consider essential to develop a competitive economic cluster in urban regions. The main obstacle we find with the information available to carry out this study has been its heterogeneity and different quality of the data. 22@Barcelona appears to be in a good position to compete with other excelling clusters, but it still needs to improve in areas such as financial supply for R&D and start-ups and coordination between the different actors involved in urban economic development. Our research also contributes to the discussion on the role of public institutions in the cluster development policies. In the clusters studied here, especially in Barcelona, we have seen that a capable and resourceful public administration can determine the success of the cluster initiative.
When neurological symptoms hides a nephrologic pathology and a cardiac abnormality  [PDF]
Clotilde Muller, Bernadette Faller, Franois Sellal, Franois Chantrel
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2011.11002
Abstract: We bring report the case of a young woman who presents with neurological symptoms, and to which the practised investigations led to the discovery in chain of unexpected pathologies. These neurological disorders were revealing of the picture associating a nephrotic syndrome and a patent foramen ovale. This foramen was the major route of a rain of emboles ring peripheral favored by the nephrotic syndrome towards the cerebral hemispheres.
Labeled HepasphereTM behavior during venous drainage simulation at 1.5T  [PDF]
Hassan Jassar, Franois Langevin
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.311142
Abstract: Stability of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent inside vascular occlusion agents is important for their localization with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this paper is to study the behaviour of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) within Hepaspheres? microparticles (MP) by MRI when they are submitted to negative pressure induced by venous drainage of a tumor. Therefore, a venous drainage model was established and three parameters were taken into account according to physiologic parameters in tumors: pH, temperature and flow blood rate. Four cycles of pumping were performed with the presence of labeled Hepaspheres? with Endorem®. Several MR images of MP and perfusion liquid were taken before and after pumping. Endorem® release was determined after correction of non-uniformity intensities in MR images. Intensity variation according to spatial position, coil and MR acquisition parameters was studied. Labeled microparticles (LB*MP) appeared as black spots in MRI images whatever duration and pH. Our model demonstrates the stability of the SPIO inside the occlusion agent during time. Moreover, the proposed correction method proves the reduction of the intensity non-uniformity in MRI images.
Architectural Model of a Biological Retina Using Cellular Automata  [PDF]
Franois Devillard, Bernard Heit
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.214008
Abstract: Developments in neurophysiology focusing on foveal vision have characterized more and more precisely the spatiotemporal processing that is well adapted to the regularization of the visual information within the retina. The works described in this article focus on a simplified architectural model based on features and mechanisms of adaptation in the retina. Similarly to the biological retina, which transforms luminance information into a series of encoded representations of image characteristics transmitted to the brain, our structural model allows us to reveal more information in the scene. Our modeling of the different functional pathways permits the mapping of important complementary information types at abstract levels of image analysis, and thereby allows a better exploitation of visual clues. Our model is based on a distributed cellular automata network and simulates the retinal processing of stimuli that are stationary or in motion. Thanks to its capacity for dynamic adaptation, our model can adapt itself to different scenes (e.g., bright and dim, stationary and moving, etc.) and can parallelize those processing steps that can be supported by parallel calculators.
Ethical Decision-Making in Clinical Nutritional Practice  [PDF]
Franois P. R. de Villiers
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26089
Abstract: Ethics requires a critical evaluation of assumptions and arguments about norms and values; what should be done and what should not. Practitioners should practice ethically, and the professions should be at the forefront of applied ethics. There are four principles, patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, which are guides to ethical day-to-day practice. Patient autonomy: Autonomy means self-rule by persons of their thoughts and actions. Patient autonomy requires the practitioner to realise that patients have the right to be involved in decision-making on their own behalf. Beneficence refers to the duty of the practitioner to do the best for the patient. The benefits of breast-feeding are many, and the eventual outcome on health enormous. Nevertheless, health-care workers are diffident in promoting breast-feeding, and readily accept excuses for not breast-feeding, contrary to the principle of beneficence. Non-maleficence refers to the duty of the practitioner not to do harm; it requires the practitioner to withhold harmful therapies; Vitamin E, for example, has been proven to be ineffective as an antioxidant in humans, and large doses have been proven to increase mortality. Yet these are the doses available in supermarkets and “Health shops”. Nutritionists should actively advise against harmful “dietary supplementation”. Distributive justice requires every patient to have an equal opportunity to obtain appropriate therapy. There are relatively few nutritionists and dieticians in South Africa, and indeed in the entire African continent, but proportionately even fewer in the areas of greatest need. A case illustrates the application of these ethical principles to show how they can be applied to our daily practice. Using these four principles is a practical approach to solving ethical dilemmas.
Microwave-Assisted Polyesterification Process in Bulk and Aqueous Media  [PDF]
Nassima Mazouzi-Sennour, Franois Henry
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.41003
Abstract: Microwave irradiation in polymer chemistry is an emerging research field. This type of heating can enhance the rate of reaction and improve the specific characteristics of the formed polymer. In this context, the present paper focuses on selective microwave (MW) heating and its influence on the polyesterification reaction. As a reaction model, the polyesterification of sebacic acid with decanediol, in bulk and in aqueous emulsion is investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by using 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), which plays a catalytic and surfactant role. Both in bulk and in aqueous media, a polyester with higher molecular weight is obtained in MW heating compared to the conventional heating.
Influence of Microwave Irradiation on Hydrolysis Reaction of Sunflower Oil in Aqueous Emulsion  [PDF]
Nassima Mazouzi-Sennour, Franois Henry
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.41004
Abstract: Microwave irradiation (MW) has been widely applied as heating in chemical processing. It offers a clean, convenient and inexpensive method of heating which often results in higher yields and shorter reaction times. Here, we study the microwave heating influence on the hydrolysis of the triglyceride (sunflower oil) in aqueous emulsion catalyzed by using 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA). The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of temperature, reaction time and the catalyst nature and concentration on the hydrolysis reaction were investigated. The hydrolysis was carried out at temperatures ranging between 90°C and 150°C. The polarity of the reaction medium accelerated this reaction.
Regulation of Breast Cancer Progression by Phosphorylation of the Tumor Suppressor Tropomyosin-1 Alpha  [PDF]
Mouna Zerradi, Franois Houle, Jacques Huot
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.69086
Abstract: Background: Tropomyosin 1 alpha chain (Tm1) is an actin-binding protein that regulates the endothelial cell response to oxidative stress following its phosphorylation at Serine 283 (S283). Tm1 is also a major tumor suppressor in breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the role of phosphorylation of Tm1 in regulating its tumor suppressor properties. Methods: MDA MB231 breast cancer cells stably overexpressing wild type form of Tm1 or Tm1 mutants (S283A and S283E) were generated. Proliferation and cell viability were assayed by means of the enzymatic cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 to formazan dye by cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Adhesion assays were performed at various periods of time on cells grown on plastic. Cell migration was evaluated by using the wound-healing assay and by measuring transendothelial migration of cancer cells. Malignant transformation in vitro was determined by using the anchorage-independent growth assay on soft agar. Results: We found that cells expressing the phosphomimetic form of Tm1 S283E/Tm1 are characterized by an increased adhesion to the substratum. Moreover, the migration of MDA-MB231/S283E/Tm1 cells in a wound closure assay is reduced compared to parental cells or those expressing the non-phosphorylatable form of Tm1 (S283A). Similarly, the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB231/S283E/Tm1 cells is also reduced as compared to the other cell lines. Moreover, we found that the cells expressing the S283A mutants form more colonies in soft agar that those expressing the S283E mutants. Conclusion: Phosphorylation of Tm1 at Ser283 contributes to its anti-tumor properties, and this effect results mainly from an increase in cell adhesion associated with a decrease in their migratory and invasive potentials.
An Ethnomethodological Perspective on the Conflict between Magistrates and Journalists in Cameroon  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Nguegan, Thomas Essono
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.34013
Abstract: The report of the magistrate profession to that of a journalist in Cameroon can be studied from the perspective both of the sociology of professions and sociology of the conflict; the actors, who belong to different territories, are usually against the quality, legitimacy and competence required to deal with media information, and judicial control, individual freedom. This relationship is mainly studied in this research in terms of symbolic interactionism, to emphasize first of all on the importance that judges and journalists themselves give to their profession and secondly on the rationality of their game in the construction and the demarcation of their respective territories. This article is a contribution to the study of the discourse of these two groups of professionals who compete with each other.
Lichen-Spruce Woodland Early Indicators of Ecological Resilience Following Silvicultural Disturbances in Québec’s Closed-Crown Forest Zone  [PDF]
Esteban Gonzalez, Franois Hébert, Jean-Franois Boucher, Pascal Sirois, Daniel Lord
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43A094

Lichen woodlands (LW) located in the closed-crown boreal forest are not a successional stage moving towards a closed black spruce feathermoss stand (FM), but an alternative stable state, due to their previous forest history, and the occurrence of LWs located nearby closed-crown FM stands. Therefore, afforestation in those LWs through site preparation and plantation could shift back LW into FM stands. We implemented an experimental design with different combinations of silvicultural treatments in both site types (LW, FM). We monitored the evolution of plant diversity and the physiology of three bio-indicators (Picea mariana, Kalmia angustifolia, Rhododendron groenlandicum) in different microsites created by the silvicultural treatments. The return to the initial composition was noticed only two years after treatments, especially in the LW stands, thus indicating a higher level of early ecosystem resilience in LWs compared to FM stands. Mean species cover, especially in the FM stands, decreased the most in the skid trails created by logging, probably due to a lack of acclimation of bryophytes to open stand conditions. Conversely, ericaceous shrubs and lichens found in the LWs were already acclimated to open stand conditions, which give to LWs a restructuring advantage compared to FM plant communities after silvicultural treatments. Overall, FM and LW short-term resilience was similar, indicating equally efficient ecosystem reorganization in both stands. The comparable early resilience in managed LW and FM stands, in terms of plant biodiversity, contradicts the presumed fragility of LW stands, especially in this case where LWs are assumed to be an alternative stable state created by compound disturbances. Silvicultural treatments maintained the functional group diversity in LWs, a key element for ecosystem resilience. Therefore, this study support the idea that plantation following site preparation in LWs could be a valuable management strategy to reach several objectives, such as increasing forest carbon sinks.

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