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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2059 matches for " Forman MR "
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Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause
Forman MR, Mangini LD, Thelus-Jean R, Hayward MD
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S15946
Abstract: ourse origins of the ages at menarche and menopause Review (1325) Total Article Views Authors: Forman MR, Mangini LD, Thelus-Jean R, Hayward MD Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 1 - 21 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S15946 Received: 30 August 2012 Accepted: 26 October 2012 Published: 18 January 2013 Michele R Forman,1 Lauren D Mangini,1 Rosenie Thelus-Jean,2 Mark D Hayward3 1Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 2Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington DC, 3Population Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: A woman's age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman's health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman's reproductive life cycle as well as accelerate progress toward more sophisticated preventive strategies for chronic disease.
Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause
Forman MR,Mangini LD,Thelus-Jean R,Hayward MD
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2013,
Abstract: Michele R Forman,1 Lauren D Mangini,1 Rosenie Thelus-Jean,2 Mark D Hayward31Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 2Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington DC, 3Population Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USAAbstract: A woman's age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman's health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman's reproductive life cycle as well as accelerate progress toward more sophisticated preventive strategies for chronic disease.Keywords: reproductive aging, growth, socioeconomic status, biomarker, ovarian function
The effects of depression and use of antidepressive medicines during pregnancy on the methylation status of the IGF2 imprinted control regions in the offspring
A Soubry, SK Murphy, Z Huang, A Murtha, JM Schildkraut, RL Jirtle, F Wang, J Kurtzberg, W Demark-Wahnefried, MR Forman, C Hoyo
Clinical Epigenetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1868-7083-3-2
Abstract: Epigenetic mechanisms are important for regulating gene expression and differentiation during early life. Recent studies have highlighted the possible impact of environmental factors on epigenetic characteristics during development. In utero exposure to chemicals, nutrition, or social factors may change the methylation status at CpG-rich regions of gene promoter regions, causing permanent modification of gene expression patterns [1-3]. Such alterations may lead to increased risk of chronic diseases, including mental disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer [4-6].Maternal depression, and associated drug use are common exposures to the developing fetus. The prevalence of depression in pregnant women is greater than ten percent [7], and the rate of prescriptions for mood regulators reported among pregnant women in the U.S. has increased threefold, from 1998 to 2005 [8]. Co-occuring adverse factors include: inadequate nutrition intake or insufficient weight gain, and cigarette smoking [9]. It has been shown that in utero exposure to maternal depression adversely affect fetal growth [10,11], fetal neurobehavioral development, or childhood behavior [12-15]. Exposure to SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) has been associated with congenital malformations [16-20], respiratory distress, or neurobehavioral symptoms in newborns [21,22]. As a consequence, treatment of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy is controversial; the fetus is either exposed to the psychotropic drugs or to the disease itself.The biological mechanisms behind the adverse fetal developmental consequences of antidepressant use of the mother or exposure to maternal depression are unclear. Evidence suggests that mood disorders or antidepressant medicines are associated with modulation of epigenetic regulation [23]. Adverse social environments can induce altered DNA methylation at the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in the rat hippocampus [24,25,2]. Aberrant methylatio
Phonetics for Phonics
Ross Forman
Literacy and Numeracy Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Review of: PHONETICS FOR PHONICS: UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE FOR ADULT LITERACY PRACTITIONERS by MAXINE BURTON
Conscious Hip-Hop, Change, and the Obama Era
Murray Forman
American Studies Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This article identifies a particular aspect of hip-hop’s range of cultural production—conscious rap—in order to isolate one of the more politicized discursive options available to youth in America and a site where critical perspectives on post-Civil Rights America have emerged most forcefully. It further suggests that Obama’s political rise corresponds with a new phase in hip-hop and has impacted the ways in which its creative artists frame and articulate issues of race, class, and identity.
Instant Video Revisiting: The Video Camera as a "Tool of the Mind" for Young Children
George Forman
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 1999,
Abstract: Once used only to record special events in the classroom, video cameras are now small enough and affordable enough to be used to document everyday events. Video cameras with foldout screens allow children to watch their activities immediately after they happen and to discuss them with a teacher. This article coins the term instant video revisiting (IVR) to describe this process and, using classroom video clips, explores the educational value of IVR.
Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts
Stephanie Nixon, Lisa Forman
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-8-2
Abstract: We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a) reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b) strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c) bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a) definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b) emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c) recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations.Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach.The fields of human rights and public health ethics each offer frameworks that may inform normative health issues. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may offer a more comprehensive analysis of normative issues related to health than either approach made alone.This discussion is timely given the range of profound health-related concerns facing both public health ethics and human rights. The wide and, in some cases, growing disparities in health and wealth both within and between countries present a formidable challenge to both fields. Health challenges facing the global poor are daunting, including: infectious disease pandemics, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria; rising levels of non-communicable disease; and, limited access to adequate health care fa
Uranium in South America with Emphasis on the Brazilian Uranium Province (Summary) L'uranium en Amérique du Sud et plus particulièrement dans la province uranifère brésilienne (résumé)
Forman J. M. A.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1980034
Abstract: The search for uranium hos been going on in South America for the last 30 years and has led to discoveries of deposits in the following countries: Brazil, Argentine, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador. - In addition to the already known deposits in Brazil at Pocas de Caldas (Minas Gerais), Figueira (Parana) and Quadrilatère Ferrifère (Minas Gerais), other deposits have been discovered at Itatiaia where the uranium is associated with phosphates, in the Lagoa Real region where the uranium is in microclinal gneiss, and in the Rio Preto region. Nearly 100 ore shows have been found in Lower Precarnbrian shales covered by Middle Precambrion quartzose sandstore. The industrial complexes of Pocas de Caldas and Fiqueira will start production respectively in 1980 and 1983. - In Argentina the mains deposits are in the Serra Pintada (Mendoza Province), at Los Adobes and Cerro Condor (Chubut Province) and at Don Otto in the northern part of the country. Reserves now known and those being developed are very promising for the future. Pendant les 30 dernières années la recherche de l'uranium s'est poursuivie en Amérique du Sud et a abouti à la découverte de gisements dans les pays suivants : Brésil, Argentine, Venezuela, Pérou, Chili, Colombie et équateur. . - Au Brésil, outre les gisements déjà connus de Po as de Caldas (Minas Gerais) de Figueira (Parana) et du Quadrilatère Ferrifère des Minas Gerais, d'autres gisements ont été découverts à Itatiaia où l'uranium est associé à des phosphates, dans la zone de Lagoa Real où l'uranium se trouve dans des gneiss à microcline et dans la région de Rio Preto. Près de 100 indices minéralisés sont reconnus dans les schistes du Précambrien inférieur recouverts par des grès quartzeux d'age précambrien moyen. Les complexes industriels de Pocas de Caldas et de Figueira entreront en production respectivement en 1980 et 1983. - En Argentine, les principaux gisements se trouvent dans la Serra Pintada (Province de Mendoza), à Los Adobes et Cerre Condor (Province de Chubut) et à Don Otto dans le nord du pays. Les réserves actuellement connues et celles en cours de développement sont très prometteuses pour l'avenir.
Reading the Intentionality of Young Children
George E. Forman
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Through six video clips and accompanying commentary, the author argues that by carefully observing how very young children play, adults can gain insight into their high-level thinking and their knowledge, as well as the implications that their strategies hold for their assumptions, theories, and expectations. Adults can then become more protective of children’s time during play, more skillful in making a parallel entry into their world, and more effective in helping them extend or reconsider their assumptions about how the social and physical world works. Suggestions for video documentation in classrooms are included.
Wondering with Children: The Importance of Observation in Early Education
George Forman,Ellen Hall
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 2005,
Abstract: This paper asserts that through the process of observation, documentation, and interpretation of children's goals, strategies, and theories, teachers gain insight into children's thinking. As a result of this process, teachers are better able to engage children in conversations and investigations that have the potential to extend their learning in both depth and breadth. Utilizing brief video clips of both children and adults to support its premise, the paper outlines and discusses relevant aspects of observation for understanding and introduces the concept of the videative as a powerful resource for revisiting and analyzing documented observations.
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