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FVC and FEV Reference Values for Beninese Individuals Aged 17 - 20 Years  [PDF]
Folly Messan, Mohamed M. Lawani, Daouda Mama
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2019.92005
Abstract: Background: 1) To determine forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV) for Beninese individuals of both sexes aged 17 - 20 years; 2) Compare the observed values to those calculated based on the algorithms of the spirometer used. Materials and Methods: The FVC and FEV values were first measured using a Micro Quark spirometer and then calculated from equations for the European Respiratory Society-93 (ERS-93) in 148 subjects, including 46 girls. In each age group, the measured values for the height of the subjects were considered the only variables used to calculate the equations for FVC and FEV with their 95% confidence intervals. The means of the FEV and FVC values were obtained by univariate analysis. Results: The calculated FEV and FVC values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those observed by spirometry. Conclusion: The correction factors incorporated in spirometers imported from Europe no longer seem appropriate to measure the physical characteristics of African subjects. The differences between the two methods of assessment should be used as new ethnic correction factors.
Bronchospasm Diagnosis in Motorcycle Taxi Drivers Exposed to Automotive Pollutants in Porto-Novo  [PDF]
Folly Messan, Mohamed Lawani, Barnabé Akplogan, Pierre Dansou, Daouda Mama, Rodrigue Hounkponou, Rodrigue A. Dagnitché
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.31003

Background: In African cities, chronic exposure to pollutants is the most common public health problem faced daily by motorcycle taxi drivers. In Benin, studies conducted on motorcycle drivers, have shown the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in ambient air, which may affect lung function. Aims: This study aims to diagnose potential respiratory problems among 48 motorcycle taxi drivers (47.02 ± 8.75 years) compared to a control group made up of 52 people (46.38 ± 8.81 years) in Porto-Novo, Benin. Methods: A questionnaire, two exploration pulmonary function tests and two 6-minute walk tests were used to identify symptoms and changes in respiratory variables that reveal the existence of bronchospasm. Results: The frequency of respiratory symptoms noted among motorcycle taxi drivers is higher than that recorded among members of the control group. We observed that motorcycle drivers at rest and after physical effort have significantly lower respiratory variables (FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25-75, FEF50 and FEF25) (p < 0.05) than those recoded in control group. Conclusion: It can therefore be concluded that, because of the relatively long duration of exposure among motorcycle taxi drivers, the inhalation of automobile pollutants, may cause respiratory problems in this population.

Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm Diagnosis in Sportsmen and Sedentary
Folly Messan,Tanguy Marqueste,Barnabé Akplogan,Patrick Decherchi,Laurent Grélot
ISRN Pulmonology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/314583
Abstract: This paper aims to identify factors that may account for the high values and varied prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB), which occur in the population of athletes. Journal articles, indexed and peer reviewed, published in the MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus database were screened using a computer search. Keywords as “prevalence,” “exercise,” “bronchospasm,” and “athletes” were crossed. The diagnosis of EIB based on the questionnaire or maximal decrease of ventilatory parameters was considered as inclusion criteria and selection of articles. Analysis of selected articles reveals higher values and varied prevalence of EIB (11–55%) compared to those in the general population (4–20%). Evaluation criteria of EIB are those based on the characteristics of sedentary subjects. Criteria sometimes do not seem adapted to specific sports. This paper suggests a differential diagnostic approach which takes account of both the EIB characteristics of sedentary and those of sportsmen. 1. Introduction Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) are terms used to describe the same phenomenon depending on the path of physiological nature of the subjects and the circumstances highlighted. However, these two terms are not always interchangeable. Indeed, asthma is a multifactorial disease resulting from the combination of factors predisposing congenital (hereditary factors) and environmental factors favoring (allergens, pollen, home and industrial dusts, and air pollution inhalation, etc.). It is defined as a disorder characterized by attacks of breathlessness or chest tightness paroxysmal wheezing, usually exhalation, indicating a sharp decrease of the caliber of the bronchi which combine progressive edema and hypersecretion of mucous tract air breathing (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi) can lead to inflammation. Clinically, asthma is characterized by attacks of breathing difficulty arising from crises, time varying and is reversible spontaneously or under the effect of treatment. These accesses coincide with episodes of varying degrees of airway obstruction and reversible [1]. As a result, the diagnosis of asthma is very delicate. The diagnosis of asthma is based on the examination, respiratory symptoms, family history, and pulmonary function at rest, during exercise and pharmacodynamic tests. To validate this diagnosis in the resting state, the criteria of the European Respiratory Society [2] and the American Thoracic Society [3] require a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) less than 80% of the theoretical value, a ratio of FEV on
First Report of FVC and FEV1 Reference Values for Beninese Children Aged 11–16 Years
Folly Messan,Pierre Dansou,Tanguy Marqueste,Patrick Decherchi,Richard Tossou,Toussaint Amoussou,Béno?te Sovi-Guidi
ISRN Pulmonology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/284386
Abstract: Background. The diagnosis of obstructive ventilatory disorders in children in Benin is not reliable despite the inclusion of ethnic correction factors for European standards (ERS-93) and the use of African-American standards (ITS-Black). Objectives. (1) Define standard values for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and (2) compare the FVC and FEV1 values observed in study subjects to those calculated by the ERS-93 and ITS-Black equations. Methods. FVC and FEV1 were measured using the MicroQuark Spirometer (Cosmed, Italy), and standing height was measured in 274 Beninese boys and 210 Beninese girls. The means and 95% confidence intervals for these values were calculated by univariate analysis. Results. FVC and FEV1 values calculated using the ERS-93 equations were significantly higher ( ) than the measured values from our study. The percent change between the standard values in our study and the standards calculated using the ERS-93 and ITS-Black equations revealed differences between Beninese children and children of European or African-American descent. Conclusion. The differences observed between study samples and those derived from the ITS-Black and the ERS-93 equations should be used as ethnic correction factors. 1. Introduction The diagnosis of bronchial obstruction, the early identification of lung diseases, the monitoring of lung growth, and the apogee and decline in lung function over time are all important characteristics to consider in the clinical management of respiratory disease. The assessment and management of respiratory diseases require reliable spirometry reference points for both static and dynamic lung volumes. To accomplish this, the effects of disease and of environmental influences on lung growth must be understood to avoid misdiagnoses. Ventilatory parameters observed in measurements of respiratory mechanics should be compared with spirometric reference values ??by sex, age, height, and ethnicity in accordance with the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) [1, 2]. Indeed, it is well established that these key variables affect ventilatory parameters, for example, height increases linearly with volume and pulmonary flow until the age of approximately 12 years for boys and 10 years for girls. However, the relationship between age and height varies from puberty until approximately 20 years of age [3–5]. Similarly, reference spirometry values have been established in Europeans who are aged from 18 to 70 years and who are 1.55 to
Self-Adaptive DE Applied to Controller Design  [PDF]
K. A. Folly, T. Mulumba
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.29007

Adequate damping is necessary to maintain the security and the reliability of power systems. The most-cost effective way to enhance the small-signal of a power system is to use power system controllers known as power system stabilizers (PSSs). In general, the parameters of these controllers are tuned using conventional control techniques such as root locus, phase compensation techniques, etc. However, with these methods, it is difficult to ensure adequate stability of the system over a wide range of operating conditions. Recently, there have been some attempts by researchers to use Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Particle Swarm Optimization, Differential Evolution (DE), etc., to optimally tune the parameters of the PSSs over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper, a self-adaptive Differential Evolution (DE) is used to design a power system stabilizer for small-signal stability enhancement of a power system. By using self-adaptive DE, the control parameters of DE such as the mutation scale factor F and cross-over rate CR are made adaptive as the population evolves. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Overview of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Cells  [PDF]
Chukwubuikem Chukwuka, Komla Agbenyo Folly
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.211001

Previous studies have shown that renewable energy is one of the effective ways to fight global climate change and emissions not to mention the increasing price of fossil fuels. Among the various renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, biofuel, geothermal and tidal waves, solar power has attracted much attention especially here in Africa because of the abundance of solar radiation. A lot of studies have been done on various photovoltaic (PV) cells ranging from silicon to thin film and most recently multi-junction solar cells. In this paper, we focused on concentrated photovoltaic cells (CPV) which are promising ways of converting solar energy to electricity. It is expected that if the most cost effective ways of converting solar energy to electricity is used, both the cost of installation and the running cost of concentrated photovoltaic cells will equate the utility grid electricity cost in a few years to come.

A two patch prey-predator model with multiple foraging strategies in predators: Applications to Insects
Komi Messan,Yun Kang
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We propose and study a two patch Rosenzweig-MacArthur prey-predator model with immobile prey and predator using two dispersal strategies. The first dispersal strategy is driven by the prey-predator interaction strength, and the second dispersal is prompted by the local population density of predators which is referred as the passive dispersal. The dispersal strategies using by predator are measured by the proportion of the predator population using the passive dispersal strategy which is a parameter ranging from 0 to 1. We focus on how the dispersal strategies and the related dispersal strengths affect population dynamics of prey and predator, hence generate different spatial dynamical patterns in heterogeneous environment. We provide local and global dynamics of the proposed model. Based on our analytical and numerical analysis, interesting findings could be summarized as follow: (1) If there is no prey in one patch, then the large value of dispersal strength and the large predator population using the passive dispersal in the other patch could drive predator extinct at least locally. However, the intermediate predator population using the passive dispersal could lead to multiple interior equilibria and potentially stabilize the dynamics; (2) For symmetric patches (i.e., all the life history parameters are the same except the dispersal strengths), the large predator population using the passive dispersal can generate multiple interior attractors; (3) The dispersal strategies can stabilize the system, or destabilize the system through generating multiple interior equilibria that lead to multiple attractors; and (4) The large predator population using the passive dispersal could lead to no interior equilibrium but both prey and predator can coexist through fluctuating dynamics for almost all initial conditions.
Application of Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination  [PDF]
N. M. Stenane, K. A. Folly
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.29014

In this paper, two Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) i.e., an improved Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Population Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm are applied for optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays in an interconnected power system network. The problem of coordinating directional overcurrent relays is formulated as an optimization problem that is solved via the improved GAs and PBIL. The simulation results obtained using the improved GAs are compared with those obtained using PBIL. The results show that the improved GA proposed in this paper performs better than PBIL.

The Influence of Metakaolin from Saaba (Burkina Faso) over Physico-Mechanical and Durability Properties of Mortars  [PDF]
Fabrice Ntimugura, Seick Omar Sore, Latifou Bello, Adamah Messan
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2017.73027
Abstract: The paper evaluates the feasibility of reducing clinker in the Portland Cement production using local metakaolin in Burkina Faso. Standardized testing methods have been used for this purpose, and experiments were performed on mortar prisms containing different amounts of metakaolin. Important results about the physical, mechanical and durability characterization of blended mortars were carried out in this study. The obtained results are discussed based on available literature data. These results have shown increased physical and durability properties for blended mortars. Although the mechanical strengths remained relatively low for higher MK incorporations, the latter grow to surpass these of PC mortars (the reference) at 28, 56 and 90 days of curing. The results in the paper, have confirmed the possibility of using metakaolin to partially substitute cement, a possibility to reduce the CO2 production by the cement industry in Burkina Faso.
The Threshold Bias Model: A Mathematical Model for the Nomothetic Approach of Suicide
Walter Sydney Dutra Folly
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024414
Abstract: Background Comparative and predictive analyses of suicide data from different countries are difficult to perform due to varying approaches and the lack of comparative parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings A simple model (the Threshold Bias Model) was tested for comparative and predictive analyses of suicide rates by age. The model comprises of a six parameter distribution that was applied to the USA suicide rates by age for the years 2001 and 2002. Posteriorly, linear extrapolations are performed of the parameter values previously obtained for these years in order to estimate the values corresponding to the year 2003. The calculated distributions agreed reasonably well with the aggregate data. The model was also used to determine the age above which suicide rates become statistically observable in USA, Brazil and Sri Lanka. Conclusions/Significance The Threshold Bias Model has considerable potential applications in demographic studies of suicide. Moreover, since the model can be used to predict the evolution of suicide rates based on information extracted from past data, it will be of great interest to suicidologists and other researchers in the field of mental health.
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