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Quand les Elements centraux d'une reprEsentation sont excentriques-Note Technique
Flament, Claude
Papers on Social Representations , 1996,
Consensus, Salience and Necessity in Social Representations- Technical Note
Flament, Claude
Papers on Social Representations , 1994,
Représentation sociale, consensus et corrélation-Remarques à partir des remarques de E. H. Witte
Flament, Claude
Papers on Social Representations , 1994,
Comparaison de méthode: A propos de l'article 'Apport des modèles graphiques gaussiens en analyse de similitude'
Verges, Pierre,Flament, C.
Papers on Social Representations , 1997,
Essais préliminaires de combustion d'asphaltes par la technique du charbon pulvérisé Preliminary Tests of Asphalt Combustion by the Pulverized Coal Technique
Flament G.,Mauss F.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1980048
Abstract: Les possibilités offertes par le procédé de désasphaltage étudié à L'Institut Fran ais du Pétrole (IFP) sont rapidement exposées. On montre en particulier que les asphaltes recueillis grace à ce procédé ont des propriétés physiques telles, qu'il est possible de s'en servir comme combustible et donc de les valoriser sur le plan énergétique. The possibilities offered by the deasphalting process researched by Institut Fran ais du Pétrole (IFP) are briefly described. It is shown in particular that the types of asphalts gathered by means of this process have physical properties enabling them to be used as a fuel so that they can be upgraded from the energy standpoint.
Extent and Energetics of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent
Rick Lumpkin,Pierre J. Flament
Oceanography , 2013,
Abstract: Direct velocity observations from drogued drifters in the Hawaiian Island region are used to map the time-mean and seasonal variability of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent (HLCC). The density of these data has more than doubled since the initial discovery of the HLCC. They provide valuable absolute estimates of HLCC velocity structure and variability, complementing data derived from geostrophy and numerical simulations. The data demonstrate that the HLCC has a peak annual mean velocity > 9 cm s–1, with the strongest velocities along 19.75°N and eastward speeds in the longitudinal range 170°W to 157°W. The HLCC is relatively weak from March to May compared to its strength in other months. In the longitude band 160°–168°W, an eddy-to-mean energy flux of 3.3 ± 1.2 μW m–3 is found in the annual mean associated with the Reynolds shear stress, maintaining the shear between the HLCC and the North Equatorial Current to its south. This shear stress is associated with energetic anticyclonic eddies that are shed from the Big Island of Hawaii and propagate west-southwest. This energy flux is nearly twice as large during the peak HLCC months of August to January. It is sufficient to spin up the HLCC in O(10 days), and it is associated with an eddy spin-down time of O(100 days).
A Comprehensive Model of the Dry Desulphurisation Process Une modélisation non empirique du procédé de désulfuration par voie sèche
Flament P.,Dolignier J. C.,Martin G.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1993039
Abstract: Due to the high investment cost of the wet scrubbing, the dry desulphurisation process remains an attractive way to remove sulphur dioxide when reduction level should not be higher than 90%. In this technique, the SO2 is removed from flue gases by direct injection of small calcium based sorbents such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) . The sorbent is first transformed into calcium oxide (CaO) before reacting with SO2 to form a stable calcium sulphate (CaSO4). Although the global reactions are rather simple, a full description of the mechanism requires the knowledge of both, the initial physical properties of the sorbent and the evolution of these properties during the reaction. Furthermore, the way how particles are injected and dispersed into the SO2 containing gases is also a major issue of the dry desulphurisation process. Both aspects are considered in this paper since a specialised routine was build to describe the calcination-sulphation process and coupled with the KIVA code to perform 3D calculations under real industrial conditions. The desulphurisation model was first tested alone using the kinetic data of the International Flame Research Foundation and then, coupled with KIVA to simulate the desulphurisation process in a new type of boiler which is developed by BABCOCK Entreprise and the Institut Fran ais du Pétrole (the AUDE boiler). In this last case, the objective was to determine the sorbent injection locations leading to the highest desulphurisation efficiencies. As the dispersion of particles is an important parameter of the desulphurisation process, an example of validation of the KIVA dispersion model is also presented in this paper. For the selected test case, i. e: particle dispersion in a plane mixing layer, a good agreement was found between the experimental results of Ando et al (1990) and the calculations performed with KIVA. Par suite du co t d'investissement très élevé du procédé de lavage humide des fumées, le procédé de désulfuration par voie sèche reste un moyen attractif pour éliminer le dioxyde de soufre lorsque le taux de réduction souhaité ne dépasse pas 90 %. Dans cette technique, l'élimination du SO2 se fait en injectant directement dans les produits de combustion de très fines particules d'un absorbant calcique tel que le calcaire (CaCO3) ou la chaux (Ca(OH)2). L'absorbant est tout d'abord transformé en oxyde de calcium (CaO) avant de réagir avec le SO2 pour former un composé stable : le sulfate de calcium (CaSO4). Bien que les réactions globales soient extrêmement simples, une description com
Circulación costera en ausencia de viento en el golfo de Tehuantepec, México: Observaciones con radares de alta frecuencia
Flores-Vidal, X;Durazo, R;Chavarme, C;Flament, P;
Ciencias marinas , 2011,
Abstract: using high-frequency radars, ocean surface currents were mapped every hour over an area of =5000 km2 in the inner gulf of tehuantepec (mexico). the coastal circulation patterns (=100 km offshore) were studied during spring, summer, and autumn 2006. the spring circulation was similar to the typical winter circulation, when the circulation is forced by outbursts of northerly winds (>8 m s-1) known locally as tehuanos. although tehuano events are less common in spring than in winter, they are perfectly capable of modifying the sea surface by triggering cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (=50-200 km in diameter). under moderate wind conditions, the ocean circulation showed a quasi-permanent westward coastal current (=50 cm s-1). though the tehuano winds were absent in summer, cyclonic eddies were observed and likely linked to the westward coastal current. autumn was influenced by steady northerly winds with speeds of =12 m s-1 that remained over the region for almost 15 days. these conditions allowed us to study the competition between the wind-induced circulation and the more intense (=100 cm s-1) westward coastal current during this period. the origin of this coastal current could be related to a warm coastal-trapped flow, composed of tropical low-salinity waters. the northwestward excursion of the observed coastal current is discussed, and the three-dimensional implications of surface current fields are studied by the ekman theory and vorticity conservation.
The Eddith Thermolysis Process: a Ground-Breaking Solution for Clean Treatment of Wastes Le procédé de thermolyse EDDITh : une solution innovante pour un traitement propre des déchets
Martin G. H.,Marty E.,Flament P.,Willemin R.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1998020
Abstract: The current regulations concerning atmospheric pollutant discharge by incinerators, and the determination of public authorities to do away with waste dumps as of the beginning of the next decade are leading to a heavy demand for new installations. Areas which still use the dump method will have to equip themselves with purpose-built plants, and incinerators built more than twenty years ago will in many cases have to make way for more efficient units which meet the requirements of the legislators. In all, more than 200 new installations should be erected within the next ten years in France alone. The market prospects are even greater in Europe as a whole, since the problem of waste disposal exists under very much the same conditions in neighbouring countries. Les réglementations en vigueur relatives aux rejets atmosphériques des incinérateurs et la volonté des pouvoirs publics de supprimer les décharges dès le début de la prochaine décennie conduisent à une forte demande en installations neuves. Les régions qui pratiquent encore la mise en décharge devront s'équiper d'usines de traitement ad hoc et les incinérateurs construits il y a plus d'une vingtaine d'années devront souvent céder la place à des unités plus performantes répondant aux exigences du législateur. Au total, plus de 200 installations nouvelles devraient voir le jour d'ici dix ans rien qu'en France. Les perspectives de marché sont encore plus grandes en Europe, puisque le problème de l'élimination des déchets se pose sensiblement dans les mêmes termes dans les pays voisins.
Des lois de l'induction aux théorèmes de Thévenin et de Norton
Timofeeva Maria,Allègre Gilles,Flament Stéphane,Robbes Didier
J3eA : Journal sur l'Enseignement des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et des Systèmes , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/j3ea/2011023
Abstract: Les lois de Lenz et de l'auto-induction sont étudiées pour une boucle conductrice circulaire monotour, dans une gamme de fréquence de 1 Hz à 1 MHz. La fem en circuit ouvert et le courant de court circuit permettent au final d'obtenir les schémas équivalents de Thévenin et de Norton de la spire sous influence magnétique. La mesure de la tension en circuit ouvert met en oeuvre un amplificateur (de tension) large bande à bas bruit. La mesure du courant de court circuit est réalisée d'une part avec un amplificateur à transimpédance lui aussi large bande et à bas bruit et d'autre part en mesurant l'induction magnétique locale au voisinage de la spire fermée sur elle même. Cette dernière est comparée aux calculs analytiques et numériques. La comparaison des deux mesures du courant de court circuit permet de remonter à l'impédance d'entrée de l'amplificateur à transimpédance. Cette méthode peut être utilement étendue pour des circuits couplés (transformateur élémentaire, transformateur de flux) et pour l'étude de l'effet de peau.
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