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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 229645 matches for " Fisher Matthew C "
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Cardiac tamponade due to group a streptococcal pericarditis in a 10-month-old boy and a review of the literature  [PDF]
Matthew C. Schwartz, Matthew J. Gillespie, Paul Stephens, Brian Fisher
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2011.14020
Abstract: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of purulent pericarditis in pediatric patients as only 7 cases have been reported. We present a 10-month-old boy who developed cardiac tamponade from GAS and was successfully treated with subxiphoid tube drainage and 4 weeks of antibiotics at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.
Silent Springs: Why Are All the Frogs “Croaking”?
Matthew C. Fisher
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000198
Abstract:
Silent Springs: Why Are All the Frogs “Croaking”?
Matthew C. Fisher
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000198
Abstract:
Genetic Diversity, Recombination, and Divergence in Animal Associated Penicillium dipodomyis
Daniel A. Henk,Matthew C. Fisher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022883
Abstract: Penicillium dipodomyis is thought to be an exclusively asexual fungus associated with Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys species, and is unique among Penicillium species in growing at 37°C but producing no known toxins. Lack of recombination within P. dipodomyis would result in limited adaptive flexibility but possibly enhance local adaptation and host selection via maintenance of favourable genotypes. Here, analysis of DNA sequence data from five protein-coding genes shows that recombination occurs within P. dipodomyis on a small spatial scale. Furthermore, detection of mating-type alleles supports outcrossing and a sexual cycle in P. dipodomyis. P. dipodomyis was a weaker competitor in in vitro assays with other Penicillium species found in association with Kanagaroo rats. Bayesian species level analysis suggests that the P. dipodomyis lineage diverged from closely related species also found in cheek pouches of Kangaroo Rats and their stored seeds about 11 million years ago, a similar divergence time as Dipodomys from its sister rodent taxa.
Laboratory Evolution of Fast-Folding Green Fluorescent Protein Using Secretory Pathway Quality Control
Adam C. Fisher, Matthew P. DeLisa
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002351
Abstract: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has undergone a long history of optimization to become one of the most popular proteins in all of cell biology. It is thermally and chemically robust and produces a pronounced fluorescent phenotype when expressed in cells of all types. Recently, a superfolder GFP was engineered with increased resistance to denaturation and improved folding kinetics. Here we report that unlike other well-folded variants of GFP (e.g., GFPmut2), superfolder GFP was spared from elimination when targeted for secretion via the SecYEG translocase. This prompted us to hypothesize that the folding quality control inherent to this secretory pathway could be used as a platform for engineering similar ‘superfolded’ proteins. To test this, we targeted a combinatorial library of GFPmut2 variants to the SecYEG translocase and isolated several superfolded variants that accumulated in the cytoplasm due to their enhanced folding properties. Each of these GFP variants exhibited much faster folding kinetics than the parental GFPmut2 protein and one of these, designated superfast GFP, folded at a rate that even exceeded superfolder GFP. Remarkably, these GFP variants exhibited little to no loss in specific fluorescence activity relative to GFPmut2, suggesting that the process of superfolding can be accomplished without altering the proteins' normal function. Overall, we demonstrate that laboratory evolution combined with secretory pathway quality control enables sampling of largely unexplored amino-acid sequences for the discovery of artificial, high-performance proteins with properties that are unparalleled in their naturally occurring analogues.
The Gut Fungus Basidiobolus ranarum Has a Large Genome and Different Copy Numbers of Putatively Functionally Redundant Elongation Factor Genes
Daniel A. Henk, Matthew C. Fisher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031268
Abstract: Fungal genomes range in size from 2.3 Mb for the microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis up to 8000 Mb for Entomophaga aulicae, with a mean genome size of 37 Mb. Basidiobolus, a common inhabitant of vertebrate guts, is distantly related to all other fungi, and is unique in possessing both EF-1α and EFL genes. Using DNA sequencing and a quantitative PCR approach, we estimated a haploid genome size for Basidiobolus at 350 Mb. However, based on allelic variation, the nuclear genome is at least diploid, leading us to believe that the final genome size is at least 700 Mb. We also found that EFL was in three times the copy number of its putatively functionally overlapping paralog EF-1α. This suggests that gene or genome duplication may be an important feature of B. ranarum evolution, and also suggests that B. ranarum may have mechanisms in place that favor the preservation of functionally overlapping genes.
Thermal transport in a Luttinger liquid
C. L. Kane,Matthew P. A. Fisher
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.3192
Abstract: We study thermal transport in a one-dimensional (1d) interacting electron gas, employing the Luttinger liquid model. Both thermal conductance and thermopower are analyzed for a pure 1d gas and with impurities. The universal ratio of electrical to thermal conductance in a Fermi-liquid - the Wiedeman-Franz law - is modified, whereas the thermopower is still linear in temperature. For a single impurity the Lorenz number is given by $L(T \rightarrow 0) = 3L_0/(2g+g^2)$ - with $L_0$ the Fermi liquid value - and the conductance $1/2 < g < 1$. For $g<1/2$ the Lorenz number {\it diverges} as $T \rightarrow 0$. Possible relevance to thermal transport in conducting polymer systems is discussed.
Quantized Thermal Transport in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
C. L. Kane,Matthew P. A. Fisher
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.15832
Abstract: We analyze thermal transport in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), employing a Luttinger liquid model of edge states. Impurity mediated inter-channel scattering events are incorporated in a hydrodynamic description of heat and charge transport. The thermal Hall conductance, $K_H$, is shown to provide a new and universal characterization of the FQHE state, and reveals non-trivial information about the edge structure. The Lorenz ratio between thermal and electrical Hall conductances {\it violates} the free-electron Wiedemann-Franz law, and for some fractional states is predicted to be {\it negative}. We argue that thermal transport may provide a unique way to detect the presence of the elusive upstream propagating modes, predicted for fractions such as $\nu=2/3$ and $\nu=3/5$.
Contacts and Edge State Equilibration in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
C. L. Kane,Matthew P. A. Fisher
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.52.17393
Abstract: We develop a simple kinetic equation description of edge state dynamics in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), which allows us to examine in detail equilibration processes between multiple edge modes. As in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE), inter-mode equilibration is a prerequisite for quantization of the Hall conductance. Two sources for such equilibration are considered: Edge impurity scattering and equilibration by the electrical contacts. Several specific models for electrical contacts are introduced and analyzed. For FQHE states in which edge channels move in both directions, such as $\nu=2/3$, these models for the electrical contacts {\it do not} equilibrate the edge modes, resulting in a non-quantized Hall conductance, even in a four-terminal measurement. Inclusion of edge-impurity scattering, which {\it directly} transfers charge between channels, is shown to restore the four-terminal quantized conductance. For specific filling factors, notably $\nu =4/5$ and $\nu=4/3$, the equilibration length due to impurity scattering diverges in the zero temperature limit, which should lead to a breakdown of quantization for small samples at low temperatures. Experimental implications are discussed.
Line Junctions in the Quantum Hall Effect
C. L. Kane,Matthew P. A. Fisher
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.15231
Abstract: A long skinny gate across a fractional quantum Hall fluid at filling $\nu=1/m$ with odd integer $m$, creates a novel one-dimensional (1d) system which is isomorphic to a disordered 1d electron gas with {\it attractive} interactions. By varying the gate potential along such a line junction, it should be possible to tune through the 1d localization transition, predicted for an attractively interacting electron gas. The key signature of this 1d metal-insulator transition is the temperature dependence of the conductivity, which diverges as a power of temperature in the metallic phase, and vanishes rapidly in the insulator. We show that the 1d conductivity can be extracted from a standard Hall transport measurement, in the regime where the Hall conductance is close to its quantized value. A line junction in a $\nu=2/3$ quantized Hall fluid is predicted to exhibit a similar localization transition.
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