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The Effect of 0.2% Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash in Prevention of Dental Caries According to the DMFT Index
Nasser Asl Aminabadi,Esrafil Balaei,Firoz Pouralibaba
Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects , 2007,
Abstract: Background and aims. Dental caries still remains a major problem in the field of oral and dental health and its prevention is more important than its treatment. Fluoride plays a significant role in prevention of caries, and improving oral and dental health. One of the common ways of fluoride use is the use of a fluoride-containing mouthwash, the most important of which in use is 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash. School-based fluoride mouthwash programs have been used for delivering oral and dental health to children in recent years. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash in prevention of dental caries according to DMFT index. Material and methods. The study included a case and a control group. For each group, 100 students were selected randomly from elementary schools of Tabriz, Iran. Case group had been participating in school-based fluoride mouthwash program for three years, while control group did not benefit from the program. The two groups were assessed by means of intra-oral examination. Data was recorded using DMFT index. Results. Following the use of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash, mean DMFT index in case group decreased as much as 51.5% compared to that of control group. The mean values of decrease for the decayed, missing and filled indices were 45%, 44% and 59%, respectively. The decrease in DMFT value of the case group compared to that of control group was statistically significant (p< 0.001). A statistically significant decrease was seen in the decayed and filled indices of case group (p=0.042 and p=0.016, respectively), however the missing index did not show any statistically significant difference between the two groups (p=0.361). Conclusion. According to this study results, the weekly use of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash program has been successful in elementary schools of Tabriz. Such program can play an important role in the improvement of oral and dental health among children of school age.
Influence of the Display Monitor on Observer Performance in Detection of Dental Caries
Farzad Esmaeili,Esrafil Balaei,Firoz Pouralibaba,Farzaneh Kaviani
Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects , 2007,
Abstract: Background and aims. Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection. Materials and methods. Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a Planmeca (Planmeca Co, Helsinki, Finland) digital imaging system. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists rated each image on a five-point scale for the presence or absence of lesion. Radiographic images were viewed on the following monitors: (1) LG Flatron 700p (LG Electronics Co., South Korea); (2) Samsung Magicgreen (Samsung Electronics Corp., South Korea); (3) Hansol 710p (Hansol Electronics Corp., South Korea) and (4) Toshiba satellite laptop (Toshiba Computer Corp., Philippines). Examiners were allowed to magnify and adjust density and contrast of each image at will. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Data was subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression to test for significance between variables and to determine odds ratios. Results. Mean ROC curve areas ranged from 0.8728 for the LG monitor to 0.8395 for the Samsung. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between observers (P< 0.0001), lesion size (P< 0.0001), examiner/monitor interaction (P< 0.033) and examiner/block interaction (P< 0.013). However, no significant difference was found between monitors. Conclusion. This study suggests that observer performance is independent of the visual characteristics of the display monitor.
Biofilm Development, Plant Growth Promoting Traits and Rhizosphere Colonization by Pseudomonas entomophila FAP1: A Promising PGPR  [PDF]
Firoz Ahmad Ansari, Iqbal Ahmad
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.83016
Abstract: Among the diverse soil bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mark an important role in enhancing plant growth through a range of beneficial functions. This is mainly achieved by effective rhizosphere colonization by PGPR. Biofilm development by PGPR is considered as a survival strategy over the planktonic mode of growth under stress and natural conditions. Since the performance of microbial inoculants under field conditions is not always consistent due to various biotic and abiotic factors affecting survival, colonization and functions. Therefore, the rhizobacteria with efficient colonization ability and exhibiting multiple PGP traits are expected to perform better. We hypothesized that the biofilm forming ability of PGPR on plant root will be an added advantage to rhizosphere colonization. Therefore, we have selected a promising isolate of PGPR through random screening programme from rhizoplane of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The selection was based on biofilm development ability, multifarious PGP activities (production of indole acetic acid, sidero-phore, phosphate solubilization, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia production and biocontrol activity) and tolerance to salinity and heavy metals. The selected isolate was identified by 16 s rRNA partial gene sequencing as Pseudomonas entomophila-FAP1. The strain FAP1 formed strong biofilm in microtitre plate, glass surface as well as on the roots of wheat seedlings. Biofilm forming capacity of the FAP1 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. FAP1 exhibited biofilm-related traits such as the production of exopolysaccharides, EPS (1501.33 ± 1.08 μg ml-1), alginate (212.81 ± 1.09 μg ml-1), swarming motility (22 ± 1.36 mm), swimming motility (31 ± 2.12 mm) and cell surface hydrophobicity (63%). Rhizosphere colonization by FAP1 was found 7.5 Log CFU g-1 of soil comparable with rhizoplane colonization (7.2 Log CFU g-1 of root). Therefore, biofilm formation on plant roots by promising PGPR may be included as an additional criterion to select a better rhizosphere colonizer. Further, study with mutant deficient in biofilm should be developed for comparative study to explore the exact contribution of biofilm in root colonization under natural soil-plant system.
Quality of Urban Environment: A Critical Review of Approaches and Methodologies  [PDF]
Mohammad Firoz Khan, Subia Aftab, ? Fakhruddin
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34029
Abstract: It is a well-known fact that quality of environment in urban habitats has deteriorated throughout the world over time and the down-slide still continues. It is a matter of great concern as it affects human well-being and health. This problem under the general umbrella of quality of life studies has been examined from different angles. At the centre stage in this paper it is the quality of environment from a human perspective to inform the policy makers about the hiatus between objective (empirical) and perceived quality of environment [QOE]. Indeed, some qualitative studies are successful in finding out deeper issues in respect of environmental degradation of urban habitats which should be brought to the notice of urban planners and designers. However, studies carried out in environmental psychology, in many cases, have failed to philosophical underpinnings and appropriateness of methodology. They are unable in theorising the quality of the urban environment to the satisfaction of critical evaluation. The present paper is a humble attempt to critically evaluate the objective and perceptual approaches and methodologies to understand and evaluate quality of the urban environment. In the process, their philosophical foundations are also subjected to critical evaluation to conclude which one of the two approaches better informs policy makers concerned with urban development and renewal programmes.
Studying Malaria Epidemic for Vulnerability Zones: Multi-Criteria Approach of Geospatial Tools  [PDF]
Firoz Ahmad, Laxmi Goparaju, Abdul Qayum
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.55003
Abstract: Introduction: Despite serious interventions worldwide, malaria remains a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Malaria endemic zones are predominant in the poorest tropical regions of the world, especially in continental Africa and South-Asia. Major Indian population reside in malaria endemic zones which are tribal dominated and inaccessible. Lack of suitable data, reporting and medical facilities in malaria vulnerable regions handicaps the decision makers in taking adequate steps. Natural resources were mapped to establish their possible linkage with malaria incidence and to delineate malaria hotspots using geo-spatial tools. Methods: Remote sensing data along with various ancillary data such as socio-economic (population in general, child population, tribal population, literacy), epidemiology (Malaria API and Pf cases) and environmental parameters (wetness, forest cover, rainfall, aspect, elevation, slope, drainage buffer, and breeding sites) were integrated on GIS platform using a designed weight matrix. Multi criteria evaluation was done to generate hotspot for effective monitoring of malaria incidences. Results: Various thematic layers were utilized for integrated mapping, and the final map depicted 59.1% of the study area is vulnerable to high to very high risk of malaria occurrence. Manoharpur Administrative Block consisted of 89% of its area under high to very high probability of malaria incidence and it needs to be prioritized first for preventing epidemic outbreak. Various village pockets were revealed for prioritizing it for focused intervention of malaria control measures. Conclusions: Geospatial technology can be potentially used to map in the field of vector-borne diseases including malaria. The maps produced enable easy update of information both spatially and temporally provide effortless accessibility of geo-referenced data to the policy makers to produce cost-effective measures for malaria control in the endemic regions.
Effectiveness Of Computers Role Of Computer In Education System
Firoz Kayum Kajrekar
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A very significant area in which it could make a phenomenal difference and provide quality improvements is education. The use of computers in education has the potential not only to revolutionize the future of education, but also to empower people in the society, strengthen governance, open up new markets to achieve the human development goal for the country. Education is a challenging and complex process, more so, when it is concerned about children. Computers have been introduced in schools during 1970 with more fanfare end great expense. Almost all of the attention to computers has revolved around the question of how to put them to use as tools for education
Effectiveness Of Computers As Facilitator Of Learning
Firoz Kayum Kajrekar
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Today, information technology has had an impact on practically every field of activity and is drastically changing the way things get done. It is providing very efficient means of doing tasks have been in existence all along like communication, trade and commerce etc. A very significant area in which it could make a phenomenal difference and provide quality improvements is education. The use of computers in education has the potential not only to revolutionize the future of education, but also to empower people in the society, strengthen governance, open up new markets to achieve the human development goal for the country. Education is a challenging and complex process, more so, when it is concerned about children. The school has always continuously been to remain the hub of knowledge which gives quality education to students. Such a system should facilitate the learning of the students as well as allow them to explore and exercise their potential. (Alessi and Trollip, 2001)
Adiabatically twisting a magnetic molecule to generate pure spin currents in graphene
Firoz Islam,Colin Benjamin
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The spin orbit effect in graphene is too muted to have any observable significance with respect to its application in spintronics. However, graphene technology is too valuable to be rendered impotent to spin transport. In this communication we look at the effect of adiabatically twisting a single molecule magnet embedded in a graphene monolayer. Surprisingly, we see that pure spin currents (zero charge current) can be generated from the system via quantum pumping. In addition we also see spin selective current can also be pumped from the system. The pure spin current seen is quite resilient to temperature while disorder has a limited effect. Further the direction of these spin pumped currents can be easily and exclusively controlled by the magnetization of the single molecule magnet with disorder having no effect on the magnetization control of the pumped spin currents.
Modulation effect on the spin Hall resonance
SK Firoz Islam
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1142/S0217984913501297
Abstract: The effect of a weak electrical modulation on spin Hall resonance is presented here. In presence of the magnetic field normal to the plane of the motion of electron, the Landau levels are formed which get broadened due to the weak modulation. The width of the Landau levels broadening are periodic with the inverse magnetic field. There is a certain magnetic field for which the crossing of Landau levels between spin-up and spin-down branches takes place. This gives rise to the resonance in the spin Hall conductivity (SHC). The Landau levels broadening or the energy correction due to the modulation removes the singularity appears at the resonance field in SHC, leading to the suppression of SHC accompanied by two new peaks around this point. The separation of these two peaks increases with the increase of the modulation period. Moreover, we find that the height of the two peaks are also modulation period dependent.
White sponge nevus: a case report
Amir Ala Aghbali,Firouz Pouralibaba,Hossein Eslami,Farzaneh Pakdel
Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects , 2009,
Abstract: White sponge nevus (WSN) is a rare hereditary dyskeratotic hyperplasia of mucous membranes. It is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable penetrance. We report a case of WSN in a healthy 21-year-old male with no history of familial involvement. A white smooth plaque with no erythema or other structural abnormalities was observed, which confirmed the diagnosis of WSN histopathologically.
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