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Association Between Angular Leaf Spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferraris) and Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Yield Loss at Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia
Fikre Lemessa,Waktole Sori,Mulatu Wakjira
Plant Pathology Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics is usually limited by damage due to Angular Leaf Spot (ALS) caused by Phaeoisariopsis grisola. Field experiments were conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007 at Jimma, Ethiopia, to determine the amount of yield loss due to ALS and to investigate the relationship between ALS and bean yield. Different levels of disease severity were created on two common bean varieties (GLPX-92 and ICA15541) using natural epidemics by spraying the fungicide benomyl at 7-14- 21 and 28-day intervals and by seed dressing. Generally, all fungicide sprays significantly reduced ALS severity and increased yield and seed weight but seed dressing did not affect significantly. The relative yield and seed weight losses to ALS ranged from 2 to 47 and 15 to 33%, respectively. Single-point regression models predicted that for each per cent increase in ALS severity, there was a seed yield loss of 18 to 124.5 kg ha-1 in GLPX and 12.9 to 103.9 kg ha-1 for ICA15541 and 100-seed weight loss per sample of 100 seeds of 10 to 13 g for GLPX-92 and 13 to 22 mg for ICA15541. The study suggests that fungicide sprays affect ALS epidemics and influence the amount of loss in yield attributable to ALS permitting the crop to reach physiological maturity without being under severe infection. Thus fungicide sprays can be used as a means to reduce ALS severity and increase common bean yield.
Coffee Wilt Disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in Forest Coffee Systems of Southwest and Southeast Ethiopia
Sihen Getachew,Girma Adugna,Fikre Lemessa,H. Hindorf
Plant Pathology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing the disease in four major forests coffee sites in southwest and southeast Ethiopia are discussed. In each forest coffee site, coffee wilt syndrome was assessed in three systematically selected sample plots during dry and wet seasons of 2008 and 2009. Concurrently, three to four samples of infected coffee trees were randomly collected from each plot and the causal pathogen was isolated and identified in the laboratory. The result indicted that CWD was prevalent in the four forest coffee sites, with mean incidence of 27.1 and 29.2% in Harenna during 2008 and 2009 wet seasons, respectively, followed by Berhane-Kontir with mean incidences of 22.1 (2008) and 27.7% (2009). Whereas, Bonga and Yayu forest coffees had comparatively low wilt severity (<10%). The wood samples of most of the infected coffee trees (90.6%) yielded Gibberella xylarioides in the laboratory proving that this pathogen is the main cause of coffee tree death in the forest. The difference in incidence of CWD across the four sites and among fields was strongly associated with human factors and variations in coffee populations. The forest coffee trees in Harenna and Berhane-Kontir (high CWD) are almost transformed to semiforest type by sub-planting coffee seedlings after thinning the dense vegetation cover. These activities are known to create wound to the host and disseminate the fungus spores from tree to tree and from one field to the other. The two independent seedling inoculation tests in the greenhouse evidenced that there were significant variations among coffee accessions in reactions to CWD though most accessions were susceptible. The study showed that CWD is one of the potential biotic factors threatening the genetic diversity of Arabica coffee in most forest coffee sites and thus the disease management practices should duly be considered in planning and implementing forest coffee conservation strategy.
The Politics Underpinning the Non-realisation of the Right to Development
BM Fikre
Mizan Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: The right to development stands out as one of the controversial rights ever since its articulation in the 1970s. The adoption of the 1986 United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development underlines the importance of international cooperation for it to be realised. I argue that the emphasis on ‘development aid’ rather than the broader ‘development cooperation’ has contributed a great deal to the politicisation of the right and consequently undermined its materialisation. Indeed, there is the need for semantic and conceptual clarity in the use of the term ‘international assistance and cooperation’ that has deceptively supplanted ‘international cooperation.’ While the former is a term used under Article 2(1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights with a view to laying down the broader States Parties’ obligations, the latter is what the Declaration on the Right to Development exclusively employs. I argue that even if development assistance is indispensable, taking it as the sole approach to the realisation of the right to development is both wrong and unhelpful.
The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Effectiveness: A Case Study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Abeba Mitiku Asfaw, Mesele Damte Argaw, Lemessa Bayissa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2015.34025
Abstract: The focus of this study was to determine the impact of training and development on the employees’ performance and effectiveness at District Five Administration Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In this study we employed cross sectional institutional based quantitative research method. Data were collected using Likert’s scale tool from 100 employees after selecting participants using systematic random sampling technique. Ninety-four complete questionnaires with a response rate of 94% were considered during analysis. Training and development had positively correlated and claimed statistically significant relationship with employee performance and effectiveness. It is recommended that District Five Administration Office shall maintain providing employee training and development activities and ensure the participation of employees in planning, need or skill deficit identification and evaluation of training and development programs.
Changes in birth-weight of Hospital-delivered neonates in Addis Ababa
Fikre Enquoselassie, Aklilu Minyilshewa
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: A retrospective study was conducted to establish recent birth-weight changes in singleton live births at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for about 20 years period, September 1976 September 1996. The overall mean birth-weight was 3126g (SD=502). A decline in mean birth-weight was observed from 3162g (95% CI 3137-3186) and 3162g (95% CI 3149-3176) in the 70's and the 80's, respectively, to 3058g (95% CI 3041-3075) in the 90's. The over all proportion of low birth weight was 8.4%, increasing from 5.8% (95% CI 4.6%-7.3%) in the 70's to 7.1% (95% CI 6.4%-7.8%) in the 80's and to 11.3% (95% CI 10.2%-12.3%)in the 90's. When birth-weight was controlled for sex and maternal characteristics, a significant decrease on birth- weight was observed in the 90's, by about 81g (95% CI 44.3 - 118.5g) as compared to the 1970's. The odds of low birth-weight in the 90's was about 52% higher compared to the 70's: (OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.04-2.22). Similarly important changes in the distribution of pre-term delivery, maternal age, parity, sex ratio, and ante-natal follow-up that might have favored the decrease in birth weight were noted between the 90's and the earlier decades. Mean birth-weight was observed to peak in the months of August, September, and October ranging from 3143g to 3173g and fall between March and July. The proportion of low birth weight negatively correlated with the mean birth-weight was highest (10%) in April and observed to fall between August and October, with the lowest proportion of 6.2% in September. However, there was no considerable seasonal variation in birth-weight. In conclusion, the study has shown that mean birth-weight has declined in the 90's as compared to the earlier two decades and the proportion of low birth- weight increased in Addis Ababa, despite a continuing increase in the socioeconomic status. However, there was no considerable seasonal variation in birth- weight. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2000, 14(2): 169-176)
An assessment of the health care system for diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yeweyenhareg Feleke, Fikre Enquselassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: During the past decade, diabetes mellitus has emerged as an important clinical and public health problem through out the world. WHO estimated the number of cases of diabetics in Ethiopia to be about 800,000 in 2000, and projected that it would increase to about 1.8 million by the year 2030. Care for diabetic patients may require close and sustained support from a health care team, adequate financial resources, and advanced patient knowledge and motivation. In this respect, there is lack of information in the country. Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the characteristics of the health care system for diabetic patients, how diabetic patients are cared for including medical care and adequacy of facilities for the prevention of complications and outcomes at primary health care and secondary health care levels. Methods: An assessment of the characteristics of the health care system (structure) for diabetic patients was conducted in 21 health centres (primary health care level) and 5 regional hospitals (secondary health care level) in Addis Ababa. Furthermore, a total of 106 diabetic patients drawn from six out of the 21 health centres and another 123 diabetic patients drawn from three of the six hospitals were consecutively interviewed. Results: All the Regional hospitals and one of the health centres were running established diabetic referral clinics. Similarly, a lack of professionals was observed in all the health institutions in general and the health centres, in particular. Only 21% of patients had access for blood glucose monitoring at the same health institutions. The emphasis given for diabetic education (24%) was less than expected. Only 11 (5%) of diabetic patients were able to do self blood glucose monitoring at home. Fifty one percents of patients didn't have urine analysis, BUN, creatinine and lipid profile in the previous 1-2 years. None of diabetic patients had haemoglobin Alc (HbA1c) determination. Nearly 75% of the patients required admissions directly or indirectly due to uncontrolled diabetes. About 87% of the diabetics had regular follow ups at their respective health centres and hospitals. Hypertension (34%), diabetes related eye disease (33%) and renal disease (21%) were the major associated illnesses observed among the diabetics. Sixty-six patients (23%) had a total of about 131 admissions. Conclusion: Although there is a well-established health infrastructure for diabetics care in Addis Ababa, the diabetic care is below the acceptable standard. The finding of this study may, thus, help to clarify issues related to potential changes in the health care system dealing with diabetes and for strengthening the referral system for diabetes health care. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 203-210
Community Mobilization and Awareness Creation for the Management of Enset Xanthomonas Wilt (EXW): The Case of Gerino Enset Tekil Kebele Administration, Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Zerihun Yemataw, Awole Zeberga, Sadik Muzemil, Fikre Handoro, Mikias Yeshitla
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.713165
Abstract: Enset bacterial wilt (EXW) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is the major constraint in enset-based farming system. The opportunity to provide integrated EXW management options has opened a new vista and is enhanced by well-informed communities who are aware of the management approach available to them. We hypothesized that differential success in EXW control is mainly due to approach used in the EXW control. It is the responsibility of the research institute to adequately inform these communities via a combination of community mobilization and awareness creation. This paper therefore assessed the importance of stake holders’ mobilization and awareness creation for the promotion of technologies for EXW control in Ethiopia among 2010-2012. Individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 60 farm households, key informant interviews, relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. Results showed that about 25.6% of farmers’ field was infected by the disease in 2007 and the level reached 54.5% in 2010. End line assessment has shown that the disease prevalence declined to 10 percent in 2013. Disease incidence has shown that the intensity was highest in 2010; that is on average more than 17 enset were infected by the disease and shown significant decline in 2013 to about 1 infected enset on the infected fields. The intervention brought about promising step-ups in controlling the devastation by EXW. This intervention demonstrated that the disease impact can be minimized to a significant level if community mobilization and awareness creation with other local formal and informal institutions go hand in hand to out scale the experience to a wider range of enset farming communities.
Kinetics on Thermal Decomposition of Iron(III) Complexes of 1,2-Bis(Imino-4’-Antipyrinyl)Ethane with Varying Counter Anions  [PDF]
Fikre Elemo, Tesfay Gebretsadik, Mamo Gebrezgiabher, Yosef Bayeh, Madhu Thomas
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2019.91001
Abstract: A comparative thermal decomposition kinetic investigation on Fe(III) complexes of a antipyrine Schiff base ligand, 1,2-Bis(imino-4-antipyrinyl)ethane (GA)), with varying counter anions viz. CIO4-, NO3-, SCN-, Cl-, and Br-, has been done by thermogravimetric analysis by using Coats-Redfern equation. The kinetic parameters like activation energy (E), pre-exponential factor (A) and entropy of activation (ΔS) were quantified. On comparing the various kinetic parameters, lower activation energy was observed in second stage as compared to first thermal decomposition stage. The same trend has been observed for pre-exponential factor (A) and entropy of activation (ΔS). The present results show that the starting materials having higher activation energy (E), are more stable than the intermediate products, however; the intermediate products possess well-ordered chemical structure due to their highly negative entropy of activation (ΔS) values. The present investigation proves that the counter anions play an important role on the thermal decomposition kinetics of the complexes.
Satisfaction with outpatient health services at Jimma Hospital, South West Ethiopia
Lemessa Oljira, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2001,
Abstract: Background: The opinions of users about the health care services and the degree of their satisfaction may indicate the efficiency of the services. Objective: To assess consumer satisfaction of outpatient health care services. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Jimma hospital from November to February 1999. Data were collected by health-workers using pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 385 outpatients, females, were interviewed at exit of hospital. The majority, 140 (36.4%) of the users were within the age group of 30-39 years. About 56% of the females visited the hospital for children's health care while 87.2% of the males visited for own health care. Overall, 57.1% of interviewee believed that the service they received was either good or very good. Satisfaction with health care was found to have a direct relationship with increase in age but has an inverse relation with increase in educational level of respondents. It has a significant association with length of waiting and consultation time, type of investigations performed and securing prescribed medications from hospital pharmacy (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, efficient health service management to improve drug supply and quality of service are recommended. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2001, 15(3): 179-184)
Patterns of sexual risk behavior among undergraduate university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Tariku Dingeta, Lemessa Oljira, Nega Assefa
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and sexual risk behavior characteristics among 1,286 undergraduate students at Haramaya University, Ethiopia from March to April, 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: About 355 (28%; 95% CI 25.5-30.5) students reported to have had sexual intercourse at least once. More proportion of male students ever had sex compared to females (OR 4.8; 95% CI 3.4-6.8, p<0.001). One fifth (22.8%) of these students had their sexual debut after they joined university. About six percent of students with sexual experience reported having had intercourse with same-sex partners. Half of the males with sexual experience had intercourse with a commercial sex worker. About 60% of students reported to have used a condom rarely. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is a high level of sexual risk behavior among the study population. Significant proportion of students were sexually active, the majority started sexual intercourse before they joined university. We recommend awareness campaigns and interventions on sexual and reproductive health issues for high school and university students in Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:33
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