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Changes in birth-weight of Hospital-delivered neonates in Addis Ababa
Fikre Enquoselassie, Aklilu Minyilshewa
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: A retrospective study was conducted to establish recent birth-weight changes in singleton live births at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for about 20 years period, September 1976 September 1996. The overall mean birth-weight was 3126g (SD=502). A decline in mean birth-weight was observed from 3162g (95% CI 3137-3186) and 3162g (95% CI 3149-3176) in the 70's and the 80's, respectively, to 3058g (95% CI 3041-3075) in the 90's. The over all proportion of low birth weight was 8.4%, increasing from 5.8% (95% CI 4.6%-7.3%) in the 70's to 7.1% (95% CI 6.4%-7.8%) in the 80's and to 11.3% (95% CI 10.2%-12.3%)in the 90's. When birth-weight was controlled for sex and maternal characteristics, a significant decrease on birth- weight was observed in the 90's, by about 81g (95% CI 44.3 - 118.5g) as compared to the 1970's. The odds of low birth-weight in the 90's was about 52% higher compared to the 70's: (OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.04-2.22). Similarly important changes in the distribution of pre-term delivery, maternal age, parity, sex ratio, and ante-natal follow-up that might have favored the decrease in birth weight were noted between the 90's and the earlier decades. Mean birth-weight was observed to peak in the months of August, September, and October ranging from 3143g to 3173g and fall between March and July. The proportion of low birth weight negatively correlated with the mean birth-weight was highest (10%) in April and observed to fall between August and October, with the lowest proportion of 6.2% in September. However, there was no considerable seasonal variation in birth-weight. In conclusion, the study has shown that mean birth-weight has declined in the 90's as compared to the earlier two decades and the proportion of low birth- weight increased in Addis Ababa, despite a continuing increase in the socioeconomic status. However, there was no considerable seasonal variation in birth- weight. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2000, 14(2): 169-176)
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice About Malaria, the Mosquito and Antimalarial Drugs in a Rural Community
Wakgari Deressa, Ahmed Ali, Fikre Enquoselassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Community perceptions relating to causation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are the main socio-cultural factors which can influence malaria prevention and control. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a rural community on malaria, the mosquito vector and antimalarial drugs. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 630 randomly selected rural households was carried out in 6 peasant associations' of Butajira District in southern Ethiopia between January and September 1999. Results: Fever, headaches, chills and shivering were the most frequently mentioned symptoms of malaria reported by 89.7%, 87.5% and 81.3% of the study subjects, respectively. About 66% of the study community related the mode of transmission to the bite of infective mosquitoes and 43.7% of them believed that malaria could be transmitted from person to person through the bite of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are mainly believed to bite human beings at night (73.2%), breed in stagnant water (71%) and rest in dark places inside houses during daytime (44.3%). Malaria was thought to be preventable by 85.7% of the respondents. Of them, 62.4% reported chemoprophylaxis, 39.6% mentioned indoor residual spraying and 25% indicated eliminating breeding sites as preventive methods. The use of modern drugs for malaria was high (92%) including chloroquine (73.5%) and Sulfadoxine-Pyremethamine (60.6%). Chloroquine was believed to be effective for the treatment of malaria by 59% of the respondents, while the remaining replied that it was ineffective. Four hundred two (63.8%) respondents reported Sulfadoxine-Pyremethamine to be the most effective antimalarial drug for the treatment of malaria in contrast to others. Conclusions: Study subjects are familiar with the symptoms of malaria and to a lesser degree, are aware of an association between mosquito and malaria. Health workers at different levels of the health care delivery system should disseminate relevant information about malaria to help community members to be involved more in malaria control. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 17(2):99-104]
The Politics Underpinning the Non-realisation of the Right to Development
BM Fikre
Mizan Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: The right to development stands out as one of the controversial rights ever since its articulation in the 1970s. The adoption of the 1986 United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development underlines the importance of international cooperation for it to be realised. I argue that the emphasis on ‘development aid’ rather than the broader ‘development cooperation’ has contributed a great deal to the politicisation of the right and consequently undermined its materialisation. Indeed, there is the need for semantic and conceptual clarity in the use of the term ‘international assistance and cooperation’ that has deceptively supplanted ‘international cooperation.’ While the former is a term used under Article 2(1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights with a view to laying down the broader States Parties’ obligations, the latter is what the Declaration on the Right to Development exclusively employs. I argue that even if development assistance is indispensable, taking it as the sole approach to the realisation of the right to development is both wrong and unhelpful.
An assessment of the health care system for diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yeweyenhareg Feleke, Fikre Enquselassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: During the past decade, diabetes mellitus has emerged as an important clinical and public health problem through out the world. WHO estimated the number of cases of diabetics in Ethiopia to be about 800,000 in 2000, and projected that it would increase to about 1.8 million by the year 2030. Care for diabetic patients may require close and sustained support from a health care team, adequate financial resources, and advanced patient knowledge and motivation. In this respect, there is lack of information in the country. Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the characteristics of the health care system for diabetic patients, how diabetic patients are cared for including medical care and adequacy of facilities for the prevention of complications and outcomes at primary health care and secondary health care levels. Methods: An assessment of the characteristics of the health care system (structure) for diabetic patients was conducted in 21 health centres (primary health care level) and 5 regional hospitals (secondary health care level) in Addis Ababa. Furthermore, a total of 106 diabetic patients drawn from six out of the 21 health centres and another 123 diabetic patients drawn from three of the six hospitals were consecutively interviewed. Results: All the Regional hospitals and one of the health centres were running established diabetic referral clinics. Similarly, a lack of professionals was observed in all the health institutions in general and the health centres, in particular. Only 21% of patients had access for blood glucose monitoring at the same health institutions. The emphasis given for diabetic education (24%) was less than expected. Only 11 (5%) of diabetic patients were able to do self blood glucose monitoring at home. Fifty one percents of patients didn't have urine analysis, BUN, creatinine and lipid profile in the previous 1-2 years. None of diabetic patients had haemoglobin Alc (HbA1c) determination. Nearly 75% of the patients required admissions directly or indirectly due to uncontrolled diabetes. About 87% of the diabetics had regular follow ups at their respective health centres and hospitals. Hypertension (34%), diabetes related eye disease (33%) and renal disease (21%) were the major associated illnesses observed among the diabetics. Sixty-six patients (23%) had a total of about 131 admissions. Conclusion: Although there is a well-established health infrastructure for diabetics care in Addis Ababa, the diabetic care is below the acceptable standard. The finding of this study may, thus, help to clarify issues related to potential changes in the health care system dealing with diabetes and for strengthening the referral system for diabetes health care. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 203-210
Community Mobilization and Awareness Creation for the Management of Enset Xanthomonas Wilt (EXW): The Case of Gerino Enset Tekil Kebele Administration, Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Zerihun Yemataw, Awole Zeberga, Sadik Muzemil, Fikre Handoro, Mikias Yeshitla
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.713165
Abstract: Enset bacterial wilt (EXW) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is the major constraint in enset-based farming system. The opportunity to provide integrated EXW management options has opened a new vista and is enhanced by well-informed communities who are aware of the management approach available to them. We hypothesized that differential success in EXW control is mainly due to approach used in the EXW control. It is the responsibility of the research institute to adequately inform these communities via a combination of community mobilization and awareness creation. This paper therefore assessed the importance of stake holders’ mobilization and awareness creation for the promotion of technologies for EXW control in Ethiopia among 2010-2012. Individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 60 farm households, key informant interviews, relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. Results showed that about 25.6% of farmers’ field was infected by the disease in 2007 and the level reached 54.5% in 2010. End line assessment has shown that the disease prevalence declined to 10 percent in 2013. Disease incidence has shown that the intensity was highest in 2010; that is on average more than 17 enset were infected by the disease and shown significant decline in 2013 to about 1 infected enset on the infected fields. The intervention brought about promising step-ups in controlling the devastation by EXW. This intervention demonstrated that the disease impact can be minimized to a significant level if community mobilization and awareness creation with other local formal and informal institutions go hand in hand to out scale the experience to a wider range of enset farming communities.
Kinetics on Thermal Decomposition of Iron(III) Complexes of 1,2-Bis(Imino-4’-Antipyrinyl)Ethane with Varying Counter Anions  [PDF]
Fikre Elemo, Tesfay Gebretsadik, Mamo Gebrezgiabher, Yosef Bayeh, Madhu Thomas
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2019.91001
Abstract: A comparative thermal decomposition kinetic investigation on Fe(III) complexes of a antipyrine Schiff base ligand, 1,2-Bis(imino-4-antipyrinyl)ethane (GA)), with varying counter anions viz. CIO4-, NO3-, SCN-, Cl-, and Br-, has been done by thermogravimetric analysis by using Coats-Redfern equation. The kinetic parameters like activation energy (E), pre-exponential factor (A) and entropy of activation (ΔS) were quantified. On comparing the various kinetic parameters, lower activation energy was observed in second stage as compared to first thermal decomposition stage. The same trend has been observed for pre-exponential factor (A) and entropy of activation (ΔS). The present results show that the starting materials having higher activation energy (E), are more stable than the intermediate products, however; the intermediate products possess well-ordered chemical structure due to their highly negative entropy of activation (ΔS) values. The present investigation proves that the counter anions play an important role on the thermal decomposition kinetics of the complexes.
Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district), Oromia regional state, Ethiopia
Fikre Addis Alem,Demissie Meaza
Reproductive Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-9-33
Abstract: Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC) service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs). Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P < 0.05). While ANC attendance during the index pregnancy did not show any association. Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of the ANC services need to be investigated.
Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study
Samson Gebremedhin, Fikre Enquselassie, Melaku Umeta
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-898
Abstract: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression.The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9) μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl). About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7%) of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67) times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34) and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63) times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74) time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23) times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were not associated to zinc status.ZD is of public health concern in the area. The problem must be combated through a combination of short, medium and long-term strategies. This includes the use of household based phytate reduction food processing techniques, agricultural based approaches and livelihood promotion strategies.Zinc is one of the essential trace elements and vital micronut
Association Between Angular Leaf Spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferraris) and Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Yield Loss at Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia
Fikre Lemessa,Waktole Sori,Mulatu Wakjira
Plant Pathology Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics is usually limited by damage due to Angular Leaf Spot (ALS) caused by Phaeoisariopsis grisola. Field experiments were conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007 at Jimma, Ethiopia, to determine the amount of yield loss due to ALS and to investigate the relationship between ALS and bean yield. Different levels of disease severity were created on two common bean varieties (GLPX-92 and ICA15541) using natural epidemics by spraying the fungicide benomyl at 7-14- 21 and 28-day intervals and by seed dressing. Generally, all fungicide sprays significantly reduced ALS severity and increased yield and seed weight but seed dressing did not affect significantly. The relative yield and seed weight losses to ALS ranged from 2 to 47 and 15 to 33%, respectively. Single-point regression models predicted that for each per cent increase in ALS severity, there was a seed yield loss of 18 to 124.5 kg ha-1 in GLPX and 12.9 to 103.9 kg ha-1 for ICA15541 and 100-seed weight loss per sample of 100 seeds of 10 to 13 g for GLPX-92 and 13 to 22 mg for ICA15541. The study suggests that fungicide sprays affect ALS epidemics and influence the amount of loss in yield attributable to ALS permitting the crop to reach physiological maturity without being under severe infection. Thus fungicide sprays can be used as a means to reduce ALS severity and increase common bean yield.
Independent and Joint Effects of Prenatal Zinc and Vitamin A Deficiencies on Birthweight in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: Prospective Cohort Study
Samson Gebremedhin, Fikre Enquselassie, Melaku Umeta
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050213
Abstract: Background The effects of prenatal Zinc Deficiency (ZD) and Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) on birthweight are controversial and their interaction has not been investigated. Objective To assess the independent and interaction effects of prenatal zinc and vitamin A deficiencies on birthweight in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Methodology A community-based prospective cohort study design was employed. Six hundred fifty pregnant women in their second or third trimester were randomly selected and their serum zinc and retinol concentrations were determined. About 575 subjects were successfully followed until delivery and birthweight was measured within 72 hours after delivery. The association between the exposures and birthweight was examined using log-binomial and liner regression analyses. Potential interaction between ZD and VAD was examined using Synergy Index (SI). Results The mean birthweight (± standard deviation) was 2896 g (±423). About 16.5% (95% CI: 13.5–19.6%) of the babies had Low Birthweight (LBW). Prenatal ZD and VAD were not significantly associated to LBW with Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) of 1.25 (95 CI: 0.86–1.82) and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.86–1.87), respectively. Stratified analysis on the basis of gestational trimester showed that the occurrence of the deficiencies neither in the second nor third trimester were associated to LBW. The deficiencies did not show synergetic interaction in causing LBW [SI = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.17–6.28)]. Important risk factors of LBW were maternal illiteracy [RR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.11–2.93)], female sex of the newborn [RR = 1.79 (95% CI: 1.19–2.67)], primiparity [RR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.35)], short maternal stature [RR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.06–2.51)] and maternal thinness [RR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.03–2.25)]. In the linear regression model, elevated CRP was also negatively associated to birthweight. Conclusion LBW is of public health significance in the locality. The study did not witness any independent or interaction effect of prenatal ZD and VAD on birthweight.
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