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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 99 matches for " Feyissa GT "
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Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting
Feyissa GT, Abebe L, Girma E, Woldie M
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S29789
Abstract: lidation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting Original Research (2083) Total Article Views Authors: Feyissa GT, Abebe L, Girma E, Woldie M Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 97 - 113 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S29789 Received: 08 January 2012 Accepted: 14 February 2012 Published: 28 March 2012 Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Stigma and discrimination (SAD) against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting. Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS) and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity. Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors. Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.
Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting
Feyissa GT,Abebe L,Girma E,Woldie M
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 2012,
Abstract: Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD) against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS) and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.Keywords: stigma, discrimination, health care providers, HIV
Micropropagation of Kebericho: An Endandered Ethiopian Medicinal Plant  [PDF]
Begashaw Manahlie, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526402
Abstract: Echinops kebericho, endemic to Ethiopia, is a critically endangered medicinal plant. It is among the most important medicinal plants of the country, valued primarily for its root parts. The commercial harvesting and sale of roots of E. kebericho have threatened local populations. This study aimed to develop micropropagation protocol for E. kebericho using shoot tip explants. The study started with seed germination test using seeds stored for different months. Shoot tips from in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on shoot initiation MS media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l BAP or KN alone. Explants were cultured on shoot proliferation media fortified with Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ each at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/l either alone or in combination with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l NAA. For rooting, full, half and 1/3 strength MS media supplemented with IBA and NAA alone each at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/l were used. Growth regulator free MS medium was used as control. Study results showed that 100% germination was recorded in fresh seeds and dropped as low as 65.18% and 22.3% for 3 and 5 months seeds respectively. 1.0 mg/l KN and 0.5 mg/l KN + 0.1 mg/l NAA showed maximum shoot proliferation on shoot induction media and shoot multiplication media respectively. Best rooting was obtained on 1/3 MS containing 1.5 mg/l NAA with 8.23 roots and 4.82 cm root length and established under greenhouse with 83% survival.
In Vitro Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Glinus lotoides (L.)—An Important Medicinal Plant  [PDF]
Shiferaw Teshome, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69132
Abstract: G. lotoides L. is a threatened plant that is frequently harvested for medicinal purpose. However, its distribution in the world is limited because of short period of seed viability and poor seed germination. The objective of this study was to develop in vitro propagation protocol for G. lotoides through callus induction. For callus induction, different concentrations of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzyl amino purine) were used. Seeds were sown on growth regulator-free MS medium and shoots from the in vitro germinated seedlings were excised and cultured on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. Young leaves from these shoots were used as explant for callus induction and shoot regeneration. Maximum callus induction (100%) was observed on medium containing 2,4-D (0.5, 2.0, 3.5 mg/l) or NAA (2.0, 2.5 mg/l) in combination with 0.5 mg/l BAP. However, 2,4-D was the best in overall callus induction. The highest regeneration (20%) frequency was achieved on the medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. Highest number of shoot (2.83 ± 1.22) and shoot length (2.16 ± 0.87 cm) per explant were obtained in the presence of 0.25 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l KIN (Kinetin). In shoot multiplication media, maximum mean (6.43 ± 0.87) of shoot was observed on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. The best shoot length (1.70 ± 0.14 cm) was recorded on control medium. The highest (95%), maximum root number (14.10 ± 1.47) and root length (1.01 ± 0.10 cm) were obtained on a medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). All the plants (100%) were survived after acclimatization in greenhouse. The present study can be useful for callus induction and indirect shoot regeneration form G. lotoides.
Prospects of Biotechnological Approaches for Propagation and Improvement of Threatened African Sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud.)  [PDF]
Dickson Kalabamu Xavery, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.611183
Abstract: The African Sandalwood plant (Osyris lanceolata ) is a threatened shrub or a small hemi-parasitic tree endemic to East Africa and South African regions, which is being severely affected by uprooting for oil extraction, poor natural regeneration, phenological structures (dioecious), medicinal values, lack of sexual recruitment, habitat loss, anthropogenic and climate factors. It has been found that through application of in situ conservation of natural trees with respect to rapid human population growth, the available natural strands of valuable plants such as African sandalwood have not been able to meet the demands of the people in world specifically developing countries. However, advances in plant biotechnology provide new options for collection, multiplication and short- to long-term conservation of Osyris lanceolata species, using in vitro culture techniques. Different aspects of biotechnological applications can be extensively used to reduce the risk of extinction of this valuable plant species and to improve the quality and quantity of essential oils produced by it. Therefore, tissue culture appears to be a promising approach for the propagation and conservation of African sandalwood plant.
Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview
HG Feyissa
Mizan Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: Ethiopia’s aviation history goes back to the late 1920s. And, carriage of goods and passengers by air dates at least as far back as the 1940s – the decade which witnessed the establishment of Ethiopian Air Lines Corporation (now Ethiopian Airlines). Despite Ethiopia’s relative success in commercial aviation, domestic literature on commercial air law has been scanty. Court decisions involving air carriage are rare, and one can seldom find a course on air law in the curricula of Ethiopian law schools. This article is an attempt to briefly address the gap in literature and encourage further academic discourse on Ethiopian law of air carriage with particular attention to the law and practice regarding international carriage by air.
The Role of Ethiopian Courts in Commercial Arbitration
HG Feyissa
Mizan Law Review , 2010,
Abstract: The role of arbitration in settling disputes which involves national and transnational commercial transactions is steadily growing in this era of globalisation. International and national rules governing various aspects of commercial arbitration have contributed to the effectiveness of arbitration as an alternative to litigation. The involvement of national courts is crucial to the overall efficacy of arbitration, both domestic and international. Instances calling for court intervention may appear at all stages of the arbitral proceedings. There is, however, a need to maintain a balance between the level of court involvement and the smooth functioning of arbitration – which is a contractual alternative to judicial dispute settlement. This article deals with the legal and practical role of Ethiopian courts during the three stages of arbitral proceeding, i.e., at the beginning of arbitration, during the arbitral proceedings, and after the end of the arbitration. And finally, I argue in favour of judicial restraint particularly during the first two stages of arbitral proceedings.
Role of Antibodies: A Novel Paradigm in Mathematical Modeling for Cancer Treatment
Shiferaw Feyissa,Sandip Banerjee
Quantitative Biology , 2010,
Abstract: A mathematical model for the quantitative analysis of cancer immune interaction, considering the role of antibodies has been proposed in this paper. The model is based on the clinical evidence, which states that antibodies can directly kill cancerous cells [1]. The existence of transcritical and saddle-node bifurcation, which has been proved using Sotomayor theorem, provides strong biological implications. Through numerical simulations, it has been illustrated that under certain therapy (like monoclonal antibody therapy), which is capable of altering the parameters of the system, cancer-free state can be obtained.
Non-differential measurement error does not always bias diagnostic likelihood ratios towards the null
GT Fosgate
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-7
Abstract: The goal of epidemiologic investigations is the collection of valid data leading to a precise estimate of a population parameter (e.g. measure of association). For the purpose of this discussion, an estimate of a parameter will be considered biased if the expected value (over indefinite replications) is not the true value [1,2]. A study or process is considered biased if a systematic error is present in study design, data collection, or data analysis [2,3]. Systematic error, using a slight modification of a standard dictionary definition [4], can be defined as a persistent error having a nonzero mean that cannot be attributed entirely to chance but to inaccuracy inherent in the system of measurement. A random error develops from imprecision in a measuring instrument or protocol used to collect data for study. A random error in absence of systematic error will not result in bias if on average the measured value is still the true population value. The effect of random errors will be reduced by increasing sample size or number of measurements taken from each sampling unit. Systematic error will not be reduced by increasing sample size because it does not result from imprecise measurements.Epidemiologic investigations must consider the potential effects of both systematic and random errors on study results. The odds ratio (OR) is frequently the measure of association estimated in studies concerning etiology and the likelihood ratio (LR) is commonly estimated for evaluation of diagnostic tests. Odds ratios for diagnostic purposes can also be estimated that quantify the change in the odds of infection (or disease) resulting from a positive test result [5].Estimates of LRs and diagnostic ORs can be affected by random and systematic errors similar to other epidemiologic measures of association. The error in detection of the analyte (biologic substance measured by a diagnostic assay) must exert its effect through misclassification of the test result. The ability of the analy
Information Literacy (IL) teaching and learning: a literature review
GT Chipeta
Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The paper is largely based on review of existing literature on teaching and learning Information Literacy (IL), both online and in print. It reports on studies about the teaching and learning of IL in some institutions of higher learning. It also discusses lists of competencies, and descriptions of information literacy programmes and courses. In addition, the paper intends to compare literature on various IL undertakings in the developed countries to IL initiatives being undertaken in some developing countries, particularly, in some African Universities. The paper also discusses some challenges faced in the teaching and learning of IL in some institutions of higher learning. Some of these include technological issues, diverse groups, language and cultural barriers and time and lack of computers. The paper has been able to unearth the dearth of studies on information literacy in Africa and concludes that information on IL is mostly Euro-centric; there is little happening in African countries, except for South Africa where there have a been a number of inititiatives. The paper has demonstrated that Information Literacy is being taken seriously as a module or course at some institutions of higher learning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and Malawi, although a lot more needs to be done in terms of facilities and equipment which are vital in inculcating IL skills in students.
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