Abstract:
this paper examines the relationship among individuals, analyzing household's transfers in time or money with the perceived access to time and money help among relatives. the principal aim of this work was to understand if instances in which the members of a family support a relative can be considered to be an investment in networks and therefore accumulation of social capital. on the other hand, it analyzes the potential tradeoffs of assistance (money versus time). the study finds that the assistance is explained by the exchange hypothesis. there isn't specialization, the help provided in time and money appears to be a substitute and not complementary.

Abstract:
Este trabajo examina las relaciones que se establecen entre los individuos, a partir de un análisis de las transferencias que los hogares realizan en tiempo y en dinero, considerando el acceso potencial a la ayuda entre familiares. El principal objetivo de la investigación fue entender si la asistencia prestada por los miembros de una familia puede ser considerada como inversión en redes y, por tanto, acumulación de capital social. Asimismo, se estudian los intercambios potenciales de asistencia (dinero versus tiempo). Se concluye que la asistencia entre hogares con lazos de parentesco es motivada por el intercambio y que no existe especialización de los hogares: la ayuda provista en tiempo y dinero son sustitutos y no complementarios.

Abstract:
Objective: To propose and validate a method to aid traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physicians in differentiation of Zang-Fu single patterns.Methods: The procedure started with data collection and search on a knowledge database. Candidate patterns were selected and ranked according to the relative amount of explained exam's manifestations. Diagnosis identification was performed on a list of diagnostic hypotheses. Validation was conducted with 96 600 simulations of manifestation profiles obtained from database. Statistical performance based on confusion matrices was assessed for individual methods including inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. Combined methods (inspection+auscultation and olfaction, inspection+auscultation and olfaction+inquiry) and four methods (inspection+auscultation and olfaction+inquiry+palpation) were also tested.Results: The highest accuracy was obtained with the inquiry method (89.7%), followed by inspection (70.7%), auscultation and olfaction (59.9%), and palpation (56.1%). The same sequence was found for both sensitivity and negative predictive values. Specificity and positive predictive values were almost equal and high (>99%) among individual exam methods. The combination of all methods provided the highest accuracy (93.2%), sensitivity (86.5%), and negative predictive value (88.1%), while sustained high specificity (99.9%) and positive predictive value (99.8%). The four methods presented the higher performance compared to combination of two or three exam methods as well as all single exam methods.Conclusion: The proposed strategies present statistical evidence of its diagnostic performance and can be used to aid TCM physicians in making single pattern diagnosis according to Zang-Fu theory.

Abstract:
This paper describes the design and calibration of a thimble that measures the forces applied by a user during manipulation of virtual and real objects. Haptic devices benefit from force measurement capabilities at their end-point. However, the heavy weight and cost of force sensors prevent their widespread incorporation in these applications. The design of a lightweight, user-adaptable, and cost-effective thimble with four contact force sensors is described in this paper. The sensors are calibrated before being placed in the thimble to provide normal and tangential forces. Normal forces are exerted directly by the fingertip and thus can be properly measured. Tangential forces are estimated by sensors strategically placed in the thimble sides. Two applications are provided in order to facilitate an evaluation of sensorized thimble performance. These applications focus on: (i) force signal edge detection, which determines task segmentation of virtual object manipulation, and (ii) the development of complex object manipulation models, wherein the mechanical features of a real object are obtained and these features are then reproduced for training by means of virtual object manipulation.

Abstract:
Thermally assisted motion of magnetic domain wall under spin torque is studied theoretically. It is shown that the wall velocity $v$ depends exponentially on the spin current, $\Is$, below the threshold value, in the same way as in a thermally activated motion driven by a force. A novel property of the spin torque driven case at low temperature is that the linear term in spin current is universal, i.e., $\ln v \sim \frac{\pi\hbar}{2e}(\Is/\kB T)$. This behavior, which is independent of pinning and material constants, could be used to confirm experimentally the spin torque as the driving mechanism.

Abstract:
We report the quantum phase diagram of a one-dimensional Coulomb wire obtained using the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. The exact knowledge of the nodal points of this system permits us to find the energy in an exact way, solving the sign problem which spoils fermionic calculations in higher dimensions. The results obtained allow for the determination of the stability domain, in terms of density and temperature, of the one-dimensional Wigner crystal. At low temperatures, the quantum wire reaches the quantum-degenerate regime, which is also described by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. Increasing the temperature the system transforms to a classical Boltzmann gas which we simulate using classical Monte Carlo. At large enough density, we identify a one-dimensional ideal Fermi gas which remains quantum up to higher temperatures than in two- and three-dimensional electron gases. The obtained phase diagram as well as the energetic and structural properties of this system are relevant to experiments with electrons in quantum wires and to Coulomb ions in one-dimensional confinement.

Abstract:
Let $(X_t, Y_t)_{t\in T}$ be a discrete or continuous-time Markov process with state space $X \times R^d$ where $X$ is an arbitrary measurable set. Its transition semigroup is assumed to be additive with respect to the second component, i.e. $(X_t, Y_t)_{t\in T}$ is assumed to be a Markov additive process. In particular, this implies that the first component $(X_t)_{t\in T}$ is also a Markov process. Markov random walks or additive functionals of a Markov process are special instances of Markov additive processes. In this paper, the process $(Y_t)_{t\in T}$ is shown to satisfy the following classical limit theorems: (a) the central limit theorem, (b) the local limit theorem, (c) the one-dimensional Berry-Esseen theorem, (d) the one-dimensional first-order Edgeworth expansion, provided that we have sup{t\in(0,1]\cap T : E{\pi,0}[|Y_t| ^{\alpha}] < 1 with the expected order with respect to the independent case (up to some $\varepsilon > 0$ for (c) and (d)). For the statements (b) and (d), a Markov nonlattice condition is also assumed as in the independent case. All the results are derived under the assumption that the Markov process $(X_t)_{t\in T}$ has an invariant probability distribution $\pi$, is stationary and has the $L^2(\pi)$-spectral gap property (that is, $(X_t)t\in N}$ is $\rho$-mixing in the discrete-time case). The case where $(X_t)_{t\in T}$ is non-stationary is briefly discussed. As an application, we derive a Berry-Esseen bound for the M-estimators associated with $\rho$-mixing Markov chains.

Abstract:
background: celiac disease is an intolerance to gluten, that can affect any ethnicgroup in any region, as well as all aspects of the lives of those who suffer from it. the treatment for this pathology focuses solely on a gluten-free diet for life. bearing in mind that wheat is the most widely consumed cerealin western countries, maintaining such a diet can be difficult. objectives: to learn how a life-long, gluten-free diet daily affects those who suffer from celiac disease in order to be able to improve their quality of life. design: a case study. methodology: conducting open, semi-structured interviews with a patient suffering from celiac disease and those closest to him (mother and friends), as well as with the male nurse and the social worker from his health centre. results and conclusions: a gluten-free diet affects the personal, family and social and economic aspects of the life of an individual suffering from celiac disease.