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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1018 matches for " Ferran Pons "
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Especialización perceptiva multisensorial del habla en la infancia
Ferran Pons,David J. Lewkowicz
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2011,
Abstract: Durante el primer a o de vida, los bebés muestran una disminución en la capacidad para diferenciar sonidos del habla no presentes en su lengua materna. Este fenómeno se conoce como estrechamiento perceptivo(perceptual narrowing). Sin embargo, la percepción del habla no se basa exclusivamente en la modalidad auditiva, sino que para poder percibir adecuadamente el lenguaje, el bebé integra la información auditiva con la visual (el gesto articulatorio). Un estudio reciente demuestra que el estrechamiento perceptivo también sucede a nivel audiovisual: se observa un declive en la detección de la correspondencia sonido-gesto articulatorio (facial) en lenguas no maternas durante el primer a o de vida.
La percepción fonética en ratas: Una nueva medida de discriminación
Ferran Pons,Josep B. Trobalón
Psicológica , 2009,
Abstract: Durante las últimas décadas se ha demostrado que la experiencia con el habla cambia la percepción fonética en humanos. Varios estudios más recientes realizados con animales han demostrado que, al igual que en los humanos, una experiencia previa con los estímulos del habla también cambia su percepción de los estímulos fonéticos. Estos estudios, en mayor o menor medida, se han basado en procedimientos con entrenamiento para medir la capacidad de discriminación fonética en los animales. En el presente estudio se realizaron dos experimentos con ratas con la intención de explorar la influencia de la exposición previa a estímulos fonéticos, usando una medida que permitiera obtener una respuesta del animal sin necesidad de un entrenamiento extenso. Los resultados mostraron que una experiencia previa con estímulos fonéticos modifica su percepción. Las ratas expuestas previamente a sonidos del mismo conjunto fonético que el usado en la fase de prueba, mostraron un nivel de generalización más alto de los estímulos cercanos al estímulo referente en comparación a un grupo de ratas previamente expuestas a un conjunto de sonidos distinto y a otro grupo de ratas no expuestas previamente a ningún sonido.
La exposición no reforzada modifica la percepción fonética en ratas
Ferran Pons,Josep B. Trobalón
Psicológica , 2007,
Abstract: La percepción fonética ha sido ampliamente estudiada en animales obteniendo resultados que revelan interesantes similitudes entre humanos y animales. Sin embargo, durante los últimos veinte a os se ha mostrado que la experiencia con el lenguaje cambia la percepción fonética en humanos. En el presente estudio, exploramos el papel de la experiencia con el lenguaje en ratas, usando una exposición no reforzada en lugar de entrenamiento. Usando mera exposición en lugar de entrenamiento proporciona un modelo de aprendizaje más cercano a la conducta que quiere compararse, esto es, al aprendizaje del lenguaje por parte de un bebé, en donde no existe refuerzo explícito. Se realizaron dos experimentos. El primer experimento mostró que las ratas podían discriminar entre ejemplares de una misma categoría fonética. En el segundo experimento, se exploró el efecto de la exposición no reforzada a estímulos fonéticos que componen una categoría, por medio de la discriminación de elementos de la misma o de otra categoría fonética. Los resultados mostraron que una exposición no reforzada a estímulos fonéticos puede cambiar la percepción de estos.
Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in HIV patients in Catalonia, Spain
Immaculada Pons, Isabel Sanfeliu, María Nogueras, Montserrat Sala, Manuel Cervantes, M José Amengual, Ferran Segura
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-58
Abstract: Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test.Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant.A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age.The spectrum of Bartonella infections has expanded rapidly since the first HIV- infected patient with unusual, vascular proliferative lesions of bacillary angiomatosis (BA) was described in 1983 [1]. Of the 19 species of Bartonella described until now, only 10 were acknowledged as human pathogen species; B. bacilliformis, B. quintana, and B. henselae, are the most frequently described species [2-4], while B. elizabethae, B. vinsonii, B. washoensis, B. grahamii, B. clarridgeiae, B. koehlerae and B. alsatica were recently identified as responsible for a few cases of human infections [5-10]. Cat scratch disease (CSD), hepatic peliosis and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella [11-14]. To determine the real incidence of Bartonella infections, we must study the seroprevalence in the general population and the principal reservoirs and vectors of infection transmission. The results yielded by different studies on seroprevalence vary depending on the type of population under study; thus, the research conducted on collective groups that present special characteristics or associated risk factors present a higher prevalence than that foun
Molecular Detection of Rickettsia typhi in Cats and Fleas
Maria Mercedes Nogueras, Immaculada Pons, Ana Ortu?o, Jaime Miret, Julia Pla, Joaquim Castellà, Ferran Segura
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071386
Abstract: Background Rickettsia typhi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT), a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. Methodology/Principal Findings 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009). Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8%) cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%), from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. Conclusions Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.
Asymmetrical Genesis by Remanufacture of Antielectrons  [PDF]
Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.517193
Abstract: Problem: The asymmetrical genesis problem concerns why the universe should have an abundance of matter over antimatter. Purpose: This paper shows how the baryogenesis and leptogenesis asymmetries may both be resolved. Approach: Design methods were used to develop a conceptual mechanics for the remanufacturing processes that transform particles in the decay processes. This was based on the structures for the photon, electron, antielectron, proton and antineutrino as previously identified as logical necessities for the beta decay process, and represented as a non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields. Findings: The solution is given in terms of a mechanics that defines the transformation of discrete field structures in particles. The genesis problem is shown to be solvable. The mechanics describes pair production of an electron and antielectron from two initial photons, and subsequent remanufacture of the antielectron into a proton. It is predicted that two antineutrinos would be emitted, which are testable and falsifiable. The theory identifies that the role of the antineutrinos is to remove the antimatter handed field structures. The original electron and proton may bond to form a simple hydrogen atom, or combine via electron capture to form a neutron and hence heavier nuclides. The subsequent preponderance of the matter pathways in the genesis production sequence is also addressed and is explained as domain warfare between the matter and antimatter species. Originality: The concept of remanufacture of antielectrons into protons, with emission of antineutrinos, is novel. Extensions of the theory explain the nuclides. Consequently the theory explains from pair production up to nuclear structure, which is also original.
Energy Conversion Mechanics for Photon Emission per Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theory  [PDF]
Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710094
Abstract: Problem-Energy conversion processes in optical phenomena are incompletely explained by wave theory or quantum mechanics. There is a need for ontologically rich explanations at the level of individual particles. Purpose: This paper reports on the application of a non-local hidden-variable solution called the Cordus theory to this problem. The method is directed to the systematic development of a conceptual framework of proposed causal mechanisms. Findings: It has long been known that the bonding commitments of the electron affect its energy behaviour but the mechanisms for this have been elusive. We show how the degree of bonding constraint on the electron determines how it processes excess energy. A key concept is that the span and frequency of the electron are inversely proportional. This explains why energy changes cause positional distress for the electron. Natural explanations are given for multiple emission phenomena: Absorbance; Saturation; Beer-Lambert law; Colour; Quantum energy states; Directional emission; Photoelectric effect; Emission of polarised photons from crystals; Refraction effects; Reflection; Transparency; Birefringence; Cherenkov radiation; Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron radiation; Phase change at reflection; Force impulse at reflection and radiation pressure; Simulated emission (Laser). Originality: The paper elucidates a mechanism for how the electron responds to combinations of bonding constraint and pumped energy. The crucial insight is that the electron size and position(s) are coupled attributes of its frequency and energy, where the coupling is achieved via physical substructures. The theory is able to provide a logically coherent explanation for a wide variety of energy conversion phenomena.
Entropy at the Level of Individual Particles: Analysis of Maxwell’s Agent with a Hidden-Variable Theory  [PDF]
Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710113
Abstract: Problem: Maxwell’s Agent (MA) is a thought experiment about whether the second Law is violated at smaller scales. This is a complex problem because the scale dependencies are unclear for perfect gas assumptions, quantum coherence, thermalisation, and contextual measurement. Purpose: The MA is explored from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) perspective. Approach: The Cordus theory, a specific NLHV solution, was applied at macroscopic to fundamental scales. Physical realism requires the Agent be included in the analysis. Findings: The primary function is sorting, i.e. a one-time separation of species by some attribute. The thermodynamic MA situation is merely a special case for reducing disorder (entropy). A one-time extraction of energy is possible. This requires input energy, hence the device only has thermodynamic leverage and is not a perpetual motion device. Inefficiencies arise from thermalisation causing short mean free path of Brownian motion, perfect gases having minimal interaction with the gate, ambiguity about spatial location arising from quantum superposition, contextual measurement interfering with the particle velocity, and bremsstrahlung hysteresis losses occurring when the Agent operates. Implications: Entropy is a group property at the bulk level, not a characteristic of the individual particle, and can be reversed at an energy cost at the particle level. Originality: The explanation spans multiple levels from macroscopic down to fundamental, which is unusual. Achieving an explanation from the NLHV sector is novel. The theory accommodates superposition, irreversibility, entropy, contextual measurement, coherence-discord transition, and Brownian motion.
A Physical Basis for Entanglement in a Non-Local Hidden Variable Theory  [PDF]
Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.88082
Abstract: Problem: Superposition and entanglement are coherent effects, which can be quantified by quantum mechanics (QM), but lack descriptive explanations. They are typically analysed with inequality methods, and the results favour QM and reject physical realism and hidden-variable solutions. In particular, Colbeck & Renner (2011) showed that no extension of quantum theory can exist with better predictive power than quantum mechanics itself. Purpose: The purpose here is to critically evaluate from a conceptual and philosophical perspective the ontological underpinnings of the inequality approach. The current work is speculative in nature as it is based on a conjectured non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design for particles, and does not yet have a mathematical formalism. Nonetheless this is worth attempting for the philosophical questions it poses about the nature of reality, and the pointers it gives to possible future directions in fundamental physics. Findings: The premises of the C & R proof (that particles are points, that locality exists, that quantum theory is correct) are inconsistent, hence invalidate its conclusion. We also show that superposition and entanglement may be qualitatively explained if particles were to have the internal structure proposed by the Cordus NLHV theory. Originality: The ability to explain superposition and entanglement conceptually in terms of physical realism is relevant because it rebuts the claim that it is impossible that such a hidden-variable theory could exist. This is significant because previously it has been believed that these phenomena are explainable by QM only.
Effect of Matter Distribution on Relativistic Time Dilation  [PDF]
Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.93035
Abstract: Context: Derivations for the relativity formulations for the Lorentz are conventionally based on continuum mechanics. Purpose: This paper derives the formulations from a particle perspective. Approach: A non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) approach is adopted, based on the specific particle structures of the Cordus Theory. Findings: The Lorentz and relativistic Doppler formulations are shown to be derivable from a NLHV particle perspective. Unexpectedly, the equations contain an additional term relating to the difference in the distribution of matter (fabric density) between situations. For a homogenous fabric, which is the assumption of general relativity, the conventional formulations are recovered. Originality: The novel contribution is deriving the relativistic formulation from a NLHV theory. Also novel is the identification of the fabric density as a term in the Lorentz. Implications: It is predicted that inertial frames of reference are only situationally equivalent in the special case where they also have the same fabric density. We find against the cosmological principle with its assumption of homogeneity. The resulting situational theory of relativity has further implications for interpreting gravitational interactions at the galactic scale and larger.
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