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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24464 matches for " Fernando; Richardson "
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Large Scale Distributed Acoustic Modeling With Back-off N-grams
Ciprian Chelba,Peng Xu,Fernando Pereira,Thomas Richardson
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TASL.2013.2245649
Abstract: The paper revives an older approach to acoustic modeling that borrows from n-gram language modeling in an attempt to scale up both the amount of training data and model size (as measured by the number of parameters in the model), to approximately 100 times larger than current sizes used in automatic speech recognition. In such a data-rich setting, we can expand the phonetic context significantly beyond triphones, as well as increase the number of Gaussian mixture components for the context-dependent states that allow it. We have experimented with contexts that span seven or more context-independent phones, and up to 620 mixture components per state. Dealing with unseen phonetic contexts is accomplished using the familiar back-off technique used in language modeling due to implementation simplicity. The back-off acoustic model is estimated, stored and served using MapReduce distributed computing infrastructure. Speech recognition experiments are carried out in an N-best list rescoring framework for Google Voice Search. Training big models on large amounts of data proves to be an effective way to increase the accuracy of a state-of-the-art automatic speech recognition system. We use 87,000 hours of training data (speech along with transcription) obtained by filtering utterances in Voice Search logs on automatic speech recognition confidence. Models ranging in size between 20--40 million Gaussians are estimated using maximum likelihood training. They achieve relative reductions in word-error-rate of 11% and 6% when combined with first-pass models trained using maximum likelihood, and boosted maximum mutual information, respectively. Increasing the context size beyond five phones (quinphones) does not help.
Power Spectral Analysis of Orthogonal Pulse-Based TH-UWB Signals  [PDF]
Sudhan Majhi, Paul Richardson
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.311114
Abstract: The paper analyzes power spectral density (PSD) of orthogonal pulse-based signals for time hopping ultra wideband (TH-UWB) systems. Our extensive studies show that the PSD of these signals not only depends on the time dithering code and the modulation schemes, but also on the energy spectral density (ESD) of orthogonal pulses. The different order orthogonal pulses provide different ESD which changes the shape of continuous spectral component with symbols. We show that orthogonal pulse-based signals reduce the dynamic range of amplitude of discrete spectral components. Further, we reduce the dynamic range by adopting longer TH code over orthogonal pulse-based signals. As a result, UWB system performance improves with average transmitted power. The theoretical analysis of PSD of orthogonal pulse-based TH-UWB signal is provided in details and verified through simulation results.
Cost and Emissions Implications of Coupling Wind and Solar Power  [PDF]
Seth Blumsack, Kelsey Richardson
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.34041
Abstract: We assess the implications on long-run average energy production costs and emissions of CO2 and some criteria pollutants from coupling wind, solar and natural gas generation sources. We utilize five-minute meteorological data from a US location that has been estimated to have both high-quality wind and solar resources, to simulate production of a coupled generation system that produces a constant amount of electric energy. The natural gas turbine is utilized to provide fill-in energy for the coupled wind/solar system, and is compared to a base case where the gas turbine produces a constant power output. We assess the impacts on variability of coupled wind and solar over multiple time scales, and compare this variability with regional demand in a nearby load center, and find that coupling wind and solar does decrease variability of output. The cost analysis found that wind energy with gas back-up has a lower levelized cost of energy than using gas energy alone, resulting in production savings. Adding solar energy to the coupled system increases levelized cost of energy production; this cost is not made up by any reductions in emissions costs.
An Implementation of the Japanese Autobiographical Method Seikatsu Tsuzurikata—“Life Writing”—In a US Elementary School  [PDF]
Scott Richardson, Haruka Konishi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49080

This article explores the historical, philosophical, curricular, and practical methods of the Japanese auto-biographical method, “seikatusu tsuzurikata” and its implementation in a US elementary school. Seikatsu tsuzurikata is a progressive form of journaling that “provokes students to ‘objectively’ observe the reality surrounding them in terms of their own senses without any intervention of anyone else’s authority”, by writing essays “reflecting on their social situation” (Asanuma, 1986: pp. 153, 155). Part of life writing’s central philosophy is that students are not required to participate. For students who engaged in life writing, several benefits resulted, according to their teachers. However, we found that students had great difficulty articulating their social and emotional worlds because this kind of reflective work was uncomfortable and foreign to students who were subjected to teacher-driven, “content”, and “standards based” instruction. This article concludes by exploring the possibility of connecting life writing with social-emotional learning (SEL).

Niveles de plomo en sangre y factores de exposición en ni?os del estado de Morelos, México
Meneses-González,Fernando; Richardson,Vesta; Lino-González,Montserrat; Vidal,María Teresa;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003000800006
Abstract: objective: to assess blood lead levels and lead exposure factors in children living in morelos state, mexico. material and methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted between june and october 1996, in 232 children aged 1-12 years, at hospital del ni?o morelense de cuernavaca, morelos, mexico. blood lead levels were measured by anodic voltameter, and exposure factors were collected by questionnaire. the lead concentration value was log transformed for statistical analysis. odds ratios were obtained for some risk factors. the statistical significative risk factors were later analyzed with anova. results: a total of 232 children were recruited (50% female); 73% resided in cuernavaca city. the geometric mean blood lead level was 6.7 μg/dl; 29.7% of the children had levels over 10 μg/dl; 66% reported use of lead glazed pottery for cooking, 36% for storing food, and 19% for drinking. conclusions: blood lead levels were similar to those reported in other mexican children studies, after the reduction of lead in gasoline. the main risk factors were use of lead glazed pottery and vehicle traffic intensity near the household. these results will be useful for future prevention and control interventions.
Niveles de plomo en sangre y factores de exposición en ni os del estado de Morelos, México
Meneses-González Fernando,Richardson Vesta,Lino-González Montserrat,Vidal María Teresa
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Evaluar los niveles de plomo en sangre de ni os morelenses y sus factores de exposición. MATERIAL Y MéTODOS: Estudio transversal para analizar, por voltametría anódica, los niveles de plomo en sangre de 232 ni os de 1 a 12 a os de edad, que acudieron de junio a octubre de 1996 al Hospital del Ni o Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Los factores de exposición se indagaron por cuestionario. El valor de concentración de plomo se transformó al logaritmo natural; se estimó la razón de momios para algunos factores de exposición que se incorporaron a un modelo de ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 232 ni os (50% mujeres); 73% residentes en Cuernavaca. La media geométrica de plomo en sangre fue 6.7 μg/dl; 29.7% rebasaron los 10 μg/dl; 66% tenían antecedente de cocinar alimentos en barro vidriado; 36% de almacenar alimentos, y 19%, consumo de líquidos en ese material. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles encontrados son similares a los reportados en otras poblaciones pediátricas mexicanas en los últimos a os. Entre los principales factores de exposición destacan el uso de barro vidriado para consumo de alimentos o líquidos y la intensidad del tráfico donde viven. Este es el primer estudio que documenta los niveles de plomo en sangre en población infantil de Morelos, México, y sus resultados son punto de partida para acciones futuras de control y prevención.
Assessing Watershed Vulnerability in Bernalillo County, New Mexico Using GIS-Based Fuzzy Inference  [PDF]
Clinton P. Richardson, Kofi Amankwatia
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.112007
Abstract: Watershed vulnerability was assessed for Bernalillo County, New Mexico using a multi-criteria Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). A vulnerability map was produced by means of a weighted overlay analysis that combined soil erosion and infiltration maps derived from the FIS methodology. Five vulnerability classes were stipulated in the model: not vulnerable (N), slightly vulnerable (SV), moderately vulnerable (MV), highly vulnerable (HV), and extremely vulnerable (EV). The results indicate that about 88% of the study area is susceptible to slight (SV) to moderate vulnerability (MV), with 11% of the area subject to experience high or extreme vulnerability (HV/EV). For land use and land cover (LULC) classifications, shrub land was identified to experience the most vulnerability. Weighted overlay output compared similarly with the results predicted by Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model with the exception of the not vulnerable (N) class. The eastern portion of the county was identified as most vulnerable due to its high slope and high precipitation. Herein, structural stormwater control measures (SCMs) may be viable for managing runoff and sediment transport offsite. This multi-criteria FIS/GIS approach can provide useful information to guide decision makers in selection of suitable structural and non-structural SCMs for the arid Southwest.
Special Issue: Next Generation DNA Sequencing
Paul Richardson
Genes , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/genes1030385
Abstract: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) refers to technologies that do not rely on traditional dideoxy-nucleotide (Sanger) sequencing where labeled DNA fragments are physically resolved by electrophoresis. These new technologies rely on different strategies, but essentially all of them make use of real-time data collection of a base level incorporation event across a massive number of reactions (on the order of millions versus 96 for capillary electrophoresis for instance). The major commercial NGS platforms available to researchers are the 454 Genome Sequencer (Roche), Illumina (formerly Solexa) Genome analyzer, the SOLiD system (Applied Biosystems/Life Technologies) and the Heliscope (Helicos Corporation). The techniques and different strategies utilized by these platforms are reviewed in a number of the papers in this special issue. These technologies are enabling new applications that take advantage of the massive data produced by this next generation of sequencing instruments. [...]
Modelling the long-term consequences of undernutrition of cows grazing semiarid range for the growth of their progeny
FD Richardson
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2010,
Abstract: Undernutrition of cows grazing semi-arid range as a result of drought or heavy stocking rates reduces prenatal and pre-weaning growth of their calves. A mechanistic model has been developed that simulates the productivity of vegetation and cattle on semi-arid savanna rangeland in southern Africa. When cows are stocked at 0.200 cows/ha instead of 0.123 cows/ha the model predicted that empty body weights of their progeny at birth and weaning would be reduced by 2.9 and 43.8 kg, respectively. If all young animals are stocked at 0.22 animals/ha after weaning, differences in empty body weight at weaning are predicted to persist almost unchanged for a further two years. The model also predicted that undernutrition of cattle aged 21 months would be followed by partial compensatory growth. Comparison of simulated results with data from experiments in Zimbabwe indicates that the model realistically simulates the effects of stocking rate on cattle growth.
"Archaeology 2008" Conference, British Museum, London, 9 and 10 February 2008
Ian Richardson
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2009, DOI: 10.5334/pia.329
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