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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 218652 matches for " Fernando; Palazuelos-Rendón "
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Evaluación de la calidad del aire interior y exterior en un jardín de ni?os de la Ciudad de México
Cortez-Lugo,Marlene; Mercado-García,Adriana; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio; Meneses-González,Fernando; Palazuelos-Rendón,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341998000500005
Abstract: objective. to evaluate the differences between indoor and outdoor ozone (o3) and nitrogen dioxide (no2) levels at a school located in southwest mexico city. material and methods. indoor and outdoor o3 and no2 levels were measured daily between january and april 1990 by manual monitoring. results. indoor and outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide did not surpass the mexican standard (0.21 ppm). the correlation coefficient between maximum no2 concentrations measured by the city?s local monitoring station and those measured outside the classroom was 0.82 (p< 0.001). regarding ozone, its maximum outdoor concentration was 0.29 ppm and indoor concentrations were on average below 0.06 ppm (maximum = 0.17 ppm). the indoor/outdoor correlation coefficient was 0.72, and for every 1.7 ppm outside, there was 1.0 ppm inside (p< 0.05) conclusions. since the highest outdoors o3 concentrations were observed between 11:00 and 14:00 hrs, it is recommendable to have recess before this time.
Exposición a plomo en ni os de 6 a 12 a os de edad
Jiménez-Gutiérrez Carlos,Romieu Isabelle,Ramírez-Sánchez Adriana Leticia,Palazuelos-Rendón Eduardo
Salud Pública de México , 1999,
Abstract: Objetivo. Identificar los factores de exposición asociados a las concentraciones de plomo en ni os de escuelas primarias públicas y privadas de la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 340 ni os que asistían a la escuela primaria. Las escuelas se seleccionaron por conveniencia y los ni os en forma aleatoria. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se tomaron muestras de sangre venosa. Los niveles de plomo se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Se compararon medias mediante la prueba t de Student-Fisher y ANDEVA; y para el análisis multivariado, regresión lineal múltiple. Debido a que los niveles de plomo no seguían una distribución normal, se transformó con logaritmo neperiano, con la que se trabajó en todo el análisis estadístico. Resultados. Las medias geométricas para escuelas privadas y públicas fueron: MG=8.76 μg/dl, IC95%=9.1-10.5; MG=11.5 μg/dl, IC95%=9.4-13.5, respectivamente. Los niveles de plomo son más elevados en los ni os que asisten a la escuela pública y que presentan las siguientes características: ser varones, tener entre seis y ocho a os de edad y cursar el primer o segundo grado de primaria; las madres de estos ni os son profesionistas; en sus hogares se utiliza la cerámica vidriada y cerca de sus domicilios existen diferentes tipos de talleres contaminantes con plomo. Conclusiones. Los factores de exposición que predicen las concentraciones de plomo en sangre son: tener entre seis y ocho a os de edad, la ocupación de la madre, la utilización de cerámica vidriada, la cercanía de diferentes tipos de talleres contaminantes con plomo a los domicilios y cursar el segundo a o de primaria.
Exposición a plomo en ni?os de 6 a 12 a?os de edad
Jiménez-Gutiérrez,Carlos; Romieu,Isabelle; Ramírez-Sánchez,Adriana Leticia; Palazuelos-Rendón,Eduardo; Mu?oz-Quiles,Ilda;
Salud Pública de México , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36341999000800002
Abstract: objective. to identify exposure factors contributing to lead poisoning in school children from mexico city. material and methods. cross-sectional study of 340 children. a convenience sample of schools and a random sample of children were selected. a questionnaire was filled out and venous blood samples were taken. lead levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. statistical analysis consisted of comparison of means using student?s t test and anova. multiple linear regression was used for multivariate analysis. logarithmic transformation of lead blood levels were used to account for their non-normal distribution. results. geometric means for private and public schools were: gm=8.76 μg/dl, 95% ci=9.1-10.5; gm=11.5 μg/dl, 95% ci=9.4-13.5. lead levels were higher among children from public schools who are male, between 6 and 8 years of age, in first and second grade, whose mothers have a profession, who use glazed earthenware utensils, and who live near glazed earthenware shops or factories. conclusions. exposure predictors of lead blood levels are: being between 6 and 8 years of age, having a professional mother, using glazed earthenware utensils, living near glazed earthenware shops or factories, and studying the second grade of elementary school.
Remisiones en el Valle del Cauca. Análisis y pautas para orientar la red de servicios. 2003-2004
Rendón,Luis Fernando; Bejarano,Mónica;
Colombia Médica , 2005,
Abstract: introduction: the gap between the functions of modulation, financing, articulation and services inside the health system of social security generated disarticulation of the network, with an acute operative and financial crisis. materials and methods:the emergency control center (cru) in cali, colombia , takes charge of remission?s request for patients between different health institutions in the state. during the last year, following up of the information collected about remissions allows analysis of the population attended, its health care system affiliation, cause of remissions, diagnosis profile, and movement of patients between levels of health attention. results:of the patients 56 percent were women and 71% were assigned to the state and municipal health secretaries. the more frequent specialties requested were gynecology and obstetrics (24.4%), internal medicine (16.6%), general surgery (15.2%) and orthopedics and trauma (12.7%). the majority of remissions were pertinent (89.6%), but not coherent (38.1%). analysis and discussion: the main weakness of the network were the obstetric and gynecologic attention, the insufficient second level of attention and the high number of patients remitted directly from the first to the third level. this information contributes to decision making related to lay out a ground plan of regional service network, its relation with burden of disease and health programs that needs intervention.
Lesiones de causa externa en menores y mayores de 18 a?os en un hospital colombiano
Bejarano,Mónica; Rendón,Luis Fernando;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009000300007
Abstract: objectives: to define and compare the types of injuries from external causes in patients more than and less than 18 years of age treated by the mario correa rengifo hospital. methods: an analysis was conducted of data retrieved from the sistema de vigilancia de lesiones de causa externa (surveillance system for injuries from external causes) maintained by the mario correa rengifo hospital in cali, colombia, to compare minors (less than 18 years of age) with adults during january 2004-december 2007. results: a total of 4 507 minors were seen, most of whom (69.3%) were boys, with unintentional injuries (75.5%); however, 88% of the intentional injuries were person-to-person and 12% were self-inflicted. injuries had occurred most frequently in the home (44.1%) and on the street (39.5%); the most frequent activity was recreation (53.3%). the minors had more head injuries (odds ratio [or] = 1.62; p = 0.0000) and maxillofacial injuries (or = 1.49; p = 0.0000) than did the adults. alcohol had been consumed in 5.8% and drugs in 2.6%, both of which increased intentional injuries (alcohol or = 4.25 and drugs or = 1.56). conclusions: the number of patients less than 18 years of age with injuries from external causes being treated at the mario correa rengifo hospital is constantly rising. the circumstances regarding injuries seen in children and adolescents differ from those of adults in that minors tend to suffer more unintentional injuries in the home or in the street where they play regularly. it is important that special educational and structural strategies be implemented to prevent injuries of this type.
Remissions in the Valle del Cauca Department (State) analysis and rules to orientate network health services: 2003-2004
Luis Fernando Rendón,Mónica Bejarano
Colombia Médica , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction: The gap between the functions of modulation, financing, articulation and services inside the health system of social security generated disarticulation of the network, with an acute operative and financial crisis. Materials and methods: The Emergency Control Center (CRU) in Cali, Colombia, takes charge of remission’s request for patients between different health institutions in the State. During the last year, following up of the information collected about remissions allows analysis of the population attended, its health care system affiliation, cause of remissions, diagnosis profile, and movement of patients between levels of health attention. Results: Of the patients 56 percent were women and 71% were assigned to the state and municipal health secretaries. The more frequent specialties requested were gynecology and obstetrics (24.4%), internal medicine (16.6%), general surgery (15.2%) and orthopedics and trauma (12.7%). The majority of remissions were pertinent (89.6%), but not coherent (38.1%). Analysis and discussion: The main weakness of the network were the obstetric and gynecologic attention, the insufficient second level of attention and the high number of patients remitted directly from the first to the third level. This information contributes to decision making related to lay out a ground plan of regional service network, its relation with burden of disease and health programs that needs intervention.
Optimización de redes de comunicación por cable, un enfoque multiobjetivo
Galindres G,Luís Fernando; Escobar Z,Antonio H.; Gallego Rendón R.,Ramón A.;
Ingeniería y Desarrollo , 2010,
Abstract: this paper solves the optimization problem of communication networks by cable using a multi objective algorithm. the mathematical model is solved using a methodology based on the non-dominated sorting algorithm (nsgaii). the mathematical model uses two objective functions, one is the investment costs and the other is an indicator related to the network operation. the problem solution is a pareto front that consider information about the network design, showing a set of network configuration with minimum cost and minimum requirements of signal levels in the costumer connection nodes. for that, a real life test system is used.
Factores asociados con la intencionalidad en las lesiones de causa externa Intent-associated factors in injuries of external cause
Mónica Bejarano Castro,Luis Fernando Rendón,Martha Cristina Rojas,Carlos Andrés Durán
Revista Colombiana de Cirugía , 2006,
Abstract: Introducción: El aumento de las lesiones intencionales y no intencionales se ha convertido en un apremiante problema de salud pública. Recientemente se hizo énfasis en la importancia de estudiar las "causas" de la violencia para conocer cómo combatirlas. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los factores asociados con la intencionalidad de las lesiones. Materiales y métodos: Se dise ó un estudio analítico basado en los registros obtenidos del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de lesiones de causa externa del Hospital Mario Correa Rengifo de Cali, Colombia. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes y se calcularon estadísticas descriptivas y medidas de asociación. Resultados: Entre el total de 5236 personas que ingresaron con lesiones de causa externa entre noviembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2005, se encontró que 64,0% eran lesiones no intencionales, 32,6% intencionales interpersonales y 1,6% intencionales autoinflingidas. La intencionalidad tiene asociación positiva con sexo masculino (OR: 3,33), ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas (OR: 8,89), consumo de psicofármacos (OR: 5,61), lesiones penetrantes profundas (OR 23,85) y trauma en abdomen (OR 7.90), tórax (OR 7,00), sistémico (OR 2,19) y cuello (OR 1,88). Se observó que las lesiones intencionales tienen puntajes más bajos de RTS que las no intencionales (OR: 2,32). Conclusiones: sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica permite a las instituciones de salud evaluar la morbimortalidad de su población para definir políticas de intervención. Este estudio encontró que la intencionalidad de las lesiones de causa externa tiene una fuerte asociación con consumo de alcohol y otros psicotrópicos. Las características de los factores asociados con lesiones de causa externa permiten implementar integralmente acciones preventivas y educativas en la comunidad, con el propósito de disminuir la ocurrencia de estas lesiones y por tanto la pérdida de vidas. Introduction: The increase in the incidence of intentional and nonintentional injuries has become an important public health problem. There has been a recent emphasis on the importance of investigating the causes of violence in order to define how to prevent them. The purpose of the present study was to identify factors associated with intentional injuries. Materials and methods: An analytic study was designed based on the registry of the epidemiologic surveillance system of Hospital Mario Correa Rengifo, Cali, Colombia. All patients were included and the descriptive and association measures were calculated. Results: Among the 5,236 persons that were seen because of injuries of ex
Caracterización de los pacientes con lesiones de causa externa mediante un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica Characterization of patients with lesions of violent traumatic origin by means of an epidemiologic surveillance system
Mónica Bejarano Castro,Luis Fernando Rendón,Martha Cristina Rojas,Carlos Andrés Durán
Revista Colombiana de Cirugía , 2006,
Abstract: Introducción: La violencia es un problema de salud pública que afecta de manera grave la salud y el desarrollo social y económico de amplios sectores de la población. Materiales y métodos: En el Hospital Mario Correa Rengifo se dise ó un Sistema de Vigilancia de Lesiones de Causa Externa basado en registros institucionales, con el propósito de analizar e identificar las variables de interés, para conocer los patrones de violencia de esta comunidad. Resultados: Entre noviembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2005 se registraron 5.236 pacientes. De ellos, 5.171 (99,4%) fueron mayores de un a o y 72,1% de sexo masculino. Más de la mitad de las lesiones ocurrieron en la calle o vía pública (52,0%), el hogar (32,8%) y sitio de trabajo (7,5%). Las actividades más frecuentes fueron recreación (33,0%), labores personales (15,4%) e ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas (14,4%). Por medio del índice de Trauma Revisado para extrapolar la severidad de la lesión se encontró que la mayoría (97,5%) tenían lesiones leves, 2,3% moderadas y 0,2% severas. El destino de los pacientes se utilizó para evaluar la magnitud de la lesión: la mayoría (63,5%) salieron para su lugar de residencia luego de la atención en el Servicio de Urgencias. Conclusiones: El análisis de los datos obtenidos mediante un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica debe proporcionar bases para identificar grupos humanos y zonas geográficas de riesgo como también factores y circunstancias de comportamiento violento, importantes para estudios posteriores que permitan dise ar e implementar políticas públicas para combatir la violencia. Introduction: Trauma of violent cause is a major public health problem that severely affects the health and social and economic development of vast sectors of the population. Materials and methods: An Epidemiologic Surveillance System was created at Hospital Mario Correa Rengifo in Medellín, Colombia, based on the institutional medical records, in order to analyze and thus identify pertinent variables for the purpose of defining the patterns of trauma and violence in the community. Results: 5,236 subjects were registered in the period November 2003 through December 2005; 5,171 (99.4%) were older than one year and 72.1% were of the male sex; 52.0% of injuries occurred in public ways, 32.8% at homes, and 7.5% at the workplace. Activities that most frequently led to injuries were: recreational (33.0%), personal tasks (15.4%), and alcohol abuse (14.4%). Using the Revised Trauma Score as indicator of severity of the injury, we found that 97.5% were of slight nature, 2.3% were of moderate nature, a
Optimización de redes de comunicación por cable, un enfoque multiobjetivo
Luis Fernando Galindres G,Antonio H. Escobar Z,Ramón A. Gallego Rendón R
Ingeniería y Desarrollo , 2010,
Abstract: Este artículo resuelve el problema de la optimización de redes de comunicaciones por cable usando optimización multiobjetivo. El método usado en la solución del modelo matemático es un algoritmo especializado basado en el método Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II). El modelo matemático planteado utiliza dos funciones objetivo: el costo de inversión y un indicador relacionado con la operación de la red. En la solución del problema son obtenidos frentes dominantes que proporcionan información al dise ador de la red acerca de cómo debe ser la configuración de mínimo costo y que cumpla con los requerimientos mínimos de se al en los nodos de conexión de los usuarios. Para esto se usa un sistema de prueba de la vida real.
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