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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 480428 matches for " Fernando; Corsini A "
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MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL, METABOLISMO Y BALANCE CALóRICO
M?nckeberg B,Fernando; Corsini A,Gino;
Revista chilena de nutrición , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75182011000400011
Abstract: the human metagenome is a composite of homo sapiens genes and genes present in the genomes of the trillions of microorganism that colonize our bodies (microbiome). our largest collection of microbes resides in the gut, where an estimated 10-100 trillion organisms reside. the gut microbiome encodes metabolic capacities that remain largely unexplored but include the degradation of otherwise indigestible components of our diet. obesity results from alterations in body's regulation of energy intake, expenditure, and storage. comparisons of the distal gut microbiota of genetically obese mice and their lean littermates, as well as those of obese and lean human volunteers have revealed that obesity is associated with changes in the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial divisions (phylum), the bacteroidetes and the firmicutes. those results suggest that the gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation. in this article, we review the published evidence supporting the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity and explore the role that modifying the gut microbiota may play in its future treatment.
MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL, METABOLISMO Y BALANCE CALóRICO GUT MICROBIOTA, METABOLISM AND CALORIC BALANCE
Fernando M?nckeberg B,Gino Corsini A
Revista Chilena de Nutricíon , 2011,
Abstract: El metagenoma humano es una composición de los genes de las células eucarióticas del Homo sapiens y los genes presentes en los miles de millones de ge-nomas de los microorganismos que colonizan nuestro cuerpo (microbioma). La gran colección de microbios que colonizan en nuestro intestino se ha estimado que oscila entre 10 - 100 trillones de organismos. El micro-bioma intestinal codifica para capacidades metabólicas que se mantienen sin dilucidar pero que incluyen la degradación de componentes indigeribles de nuestra dieta. La obesidad se produce por alteraciones en la regulación de la ingesta, el gasto y el almacenamiento calórico en el organismo (cuerpo). Comparaciones de la microbiota intestinal distal de ratones genéticamente obesos y sus compa eros normales de camada, así como las de voluntarios humanos obesos y delgados han revelado que la obesidad se asocia con cambios en la abundancia relativa de las dos divisiones dominantes de bacterias (phylum), los Bacteroidetes y los Firmicutes. Esos resultados sugieren que la microbiota intestinal afecta a la adquisición de nutrientes y la regulación de la energía. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia publicada que apoya el papel potencial de la flora intestinal en el desarrollo de la obesidad y explora el rol que la modificación de la microbiota intestinal puede jugar en su tratamiento futuro. The human metagenome is a composite of Homo sapiens genes and genes present in the genomes of the trillions of microorganism that colonize our bodies (microbiome). Our largest collection of microbes resides in the gut, where an estimated 10-100 trillion organisms reside. The gut microbiome encodes metabolic capacities that remain largely unexplored but include the degradation of otherwise indigestible components of our diet. Obesity results from alterations in body's regulation of energy intake, expenditure, and storage. Comparisons of the distal gut microbiota of genetically obese mice and their lean littermates, as well as those of obese and lean human volunteers have revealed that obesity is associated with changes in the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial divisions (phylum), the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Those results suggest that the gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation. In this article, we review the published evidence supporting the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity and explore the role that modifying the gut microbiota may play in its future treatment.
Demographic Histories of ERV-K in Humans, Chimpanzees and Rhesus Monkeys
Camila M. Romano, Fernando L. de Melo, Marco Aurelio B. Corsini, Edward C. Holmes, Paolo M. de A. Zanotto
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001026
Abstract: We detected 19 complete endogenous retroviruses of the K family in the genome of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta; RhERV-K) and 12 full length elements in the genome of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes; CERV-K). These sequences were compared with 55 human HERV-K and 20 CERV-K reported previously, producing a total data set of 106 full-length ERV-K genomes. Overall, 61% of the human elements compared to 21% of the chimpanzee and 47% of rhesus elements had estimated integration times less than 4.5 million years before present (MYBP), with an average integration times of 7.8 MYBP, 13.4 MYBP and 10.3 MYBP for HERV-K, CERV-K and RhERV-K, respectively. By excluding those ERV-K sequences generated by chromosomal duplication, we used 63 of the 106 elements to compare the population dynamics of ERV-K among species. This analysis indicated that both HERV-K and RhERV-K had similar demographic histories, including markedly smaller effective population sizes, compared to CERV-K. We propose that these differing ERV-K dynamics reflect underlying differences in the evolutionary ecology of the host species, such that host ecology and demography represent important determinants of ERV-K dynamics.
The Mechanical Impact of Aerodynamic Stall on Tunnel Ventilation Fans
A. G. Sheard,A. Corsini
International Journal of Rotating Machinery , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/402763
Abstract: This paper describes work aimed at establishing the ability of a tunnel ventilation fan to operate without risk of mechanical failure in the event of aerodynamic stall. The research establishes the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical tunnel ventilation fan when operated in both stable and stalled aerodynamic conditions, with and without an anti-stall stabilisation ring, with and without a “nonstalling” blade angle and at full, half, and one quarter design speed. It also measures the fan’s peak stress, thus facilitating an analysis of the implications of the experimental results for mechanical design methodology. The paper concludes by presenting three different strategies for tunnel ventilation fan selection in applications where the selected fan will most likely stall. The first strategy selects a fan with a low-blade angle that is nonstalling. The second strategy selects a fan with a high-pressure developing capability. The third strategy selects a fan with a fitted stabilisation ring. Tunnel ventilation system designers each have their favoured fan selection strategy. However, all three strategies can produce system designs within which a tunnel ventilation fan performs reliably in-service. The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of each selection strategy and considered the strengths and weaknesses of each. 1. Introduction The operating maps of fans and compressors are limited by the occurrence of aerodynamic instabilities when throttling the flow rate. Aerodynamic flow instabilities place considerable mechanical stress on the rotors, which can eventually lead to mechanical failure. Rippl [1] conducted strain gauge measurements on axial compressors, concluding that alternating stress in vanes exceeding stable operation by a factor of five under “rotating stall” conditions. This leads to rapid fatigue failure of the blades. In contrast, a “surge” can lead to the heightening magnitude of bending stress enough to cause a mechanical failure during the surge event itself. Fan designers classically produce a mechanical design that can withstand the alternating loads imposed on the fan blades associated with rotating stall, and therefore mechanical failure during a stall event is not instantaneous. Aluminium is both low cost and light weight, and consequently the fan designers’ preferred choice of blade material. A weakness of aluminium as a structural material is its propensity to fail in fatigue. As such, fan blades that do not typically instantaneously fail during rotating stall fail in fatigue sometime later. The latter failure occurs
Experimental Characterisation of the Far-Field Noise in Axial Fans Fitted with Shaped Tip End-Plates
S. Bianchi,A. Corsini,A. G. Sheard
ISRN Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/212358
Abstract:
Experimental Characterisation of the Far-Field Noise in Axial Fans Fitted with Shaped Tip End-Plates
S. Bianchi,A. Corsini,A. G. Sheard
ISRN Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/212358
Abstract: The authors investigate the far-field noise emissions of a datum fan blade fitted with tip end-plate geometries, originally designed to control the leakage vortex swirl level. The end-plate geometries influence the tip-leakage flow, vortex formation, and swirl level. In doing so, the end-plate geometries influence the sound-power levels. After an evaluation of fan rotors' aerodynamic performance, the study compares the rotors' far-field noise signature characterised in terms of sound-power and pressure-level spectra to enable and assess the end-plate acoustic pay-off. The investigation attempts to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the tip-flow dynamics and the radiated sound fields, exploring the diverse directivity patterns. The authors found a tonal reduction, due to the enhanced blade-tip end-plates and clarified the relevance of the tip features influencing the radial distribution of the noise sources using coherence analysis. The modified multiple-vortex breakdown end-plate design was effective in reducing the broadband noise, giving an improvement in the frequency range of the turbulent noise. 1. Introduction Researchers have studied the link between the aerodynamic features of the fan rotor and its acoustic emissions extensively. In particular, Wright [1] and Cumpsty’s [2] works have enhanced the understanding of axial-turbomachinery aeroacoustics. Cumpsty [2] concluded that, with the exception of the low-frequency range of high-speed machines, the mechanism that determines broadband noise in subsonic fans is the same as that in supersonic tip-speed fans and compressors. According to Wright [1], this is due to the prominence of rotor noise originating from turbulent boundary layers. Researchers have identified a variety of mechanisms as causing noise signatures. The dominant sources, they believe, are the rotor blades, which generate noise as a result of turbulent wake shedding from the interaction between the end-wall boundary layer and the rotor tip. In view of the aerodynamic effect that tip-leakage flow exerts on wake and secondary flows, the industry widely recognises this mechanism as one of the most significant sources of noise [3, 4]. The advent of stringent environmental regulations with respect to noise production has stimulated academics and practitioners alike to pursue the development of concepts and technologies that are likely to reduce fan noise either by attenuating noise propagation or by controlling the noise at source. In this regard, researchers have not given the deserved attention to the control and
Characterization of Springtime Coliform Populations at the End Creek Wetland Restoration (Union Co., Oregon, USA): A Three-Year Study  [PDF]
Joseph A. Corsini, Larry Rob Peters, Brian Tarpy, Chung Pak, Karen Antell
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.68046
Abstract: In 2005, a 550-acre tract of agricultural land containing two small streams near La Grande, Oregon was registered in the U.S. Federal Wetlands Reserve Program. This designation was part of a plan to reclaim and restore the wetland to its natural state. Initial efforts at the End Creek Restoration Project restored both End Creek and South Fork Willow Creek to a natural course through rechanneling, and several plantings had restored some of the native flora. Since its establishment, the End Creek streams and floodplain have become a reserve for summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a threatened anadromous salmonid, and many migratory birds. The threatened Columbia Spotted Frog has also established itself in some of the ponds. As part of an effort to establish a baseline for water quality, we monitored total springtime coliform and fecal coliform bacteria in three of the End Creek ponds for three years. The results of this study indicate that, throughout any given spring, the numbers of both coliform and fecal coliform bacteria can fluctuate markedly among ponds on any given day, and that in any particular pond the numbers fluctuate from week to week. In addition, our analysis suggests that in early spring, the numbers of these organisms also fluctuate from year to year. The causes of these fluctuations are not well understood, but are expected to reflect both springtime flooding and the migrations of source animals such as waterfowl and cervids. Information gathered from this study will help inform future management activities on the wetland.
The Orthogonal Gaseous Kinematical Decoupling in the Sa Spiral NGC 2855
E. M. Corsini,A. Pizzella,F. Bertola
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011647
Abstract: We present major and minor-axis kinematics of stars and ionized gas as well as narrow and broad-band surface photometry of the Sa spiral NGC 2855. In the nuclear regions of this unbarred and apparently undisturbed spiral galaxy the gas is rotating perpendicularly to the galaxy disk. We suggest that this kinematically-decoupled component is the signature of an acquisition process in the history of this galaxy.
Estimating mass-wasting processes in active earth slides – earth flows with time-series of High-Resolution DEMs from photogrammetry and airborne LiDAR
A. Corsini,L. Borgatti,F. Cervi,A. Dahne
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2009,
Abstract: This paper deals with the use of time-series of High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models (HR DEMs) obtained from photogrammetry and airborne LiDAR coupled with aerial photos, to analyse the magnitude of recently reactivated large scale earth slides – earth flows located in the northern Apennines of Italy. The landslides underwent complete reactivation between 2001 and 2006, causing civil protection emergencies. With the final aim to support hazard assessment and the planning of mitigation measures, high-resolution DEMs are used to identify, quantify and visualize depletion and accumulation in the slope resulting from the reactivation of the mass movements. This information allows to quantify mass wasting, i.e. the amount of landslide material that is wasted during reactivation events due to stream erosion along the slope and at its bottom, resulting in sediment discharge into the local fluvial system, and to assess the total volumetric magnitude of the events. By quantifying and visualising elevation changes at the slope scale, results are also a valuable support for the comprehension of geomorphological processes acting behind the evolution of the analysed landslides.
Síndrome Nefrótico idiopático en ni os tratados con Ciclofosfamida
Heerlein A,Corsini N,Rodríguez E,Puga F
Revista chilena de pediatría , 1981,
Abstract:
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