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With ever-increasing operating frequencies and
complicated artificial structures, loss effects become more and more important
in applications of metamaterials. Based on circuit theory and transmission line
principle, the design equations for effective electromagnetic (EM) parameters
(attenuation constant α, phase constant β, characteristic impedance Z0) of general active and passive
metamaterial are compared and derived from the equivalent lumped circuit
parameters (R, G, LL, CL, LR, CR).
To verify the design equations, theα, βand Z0 indifferent cases, including balanced, unbalanced, lossless, passive and active,
are shown by numerical simulations. The results show that using the active
method can diminish the loss effects. Meantime, it also has influence on phase constant
and real part of characteristic impedance.