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Impact of restriction of cefepime use on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli related to healthcare-associated infections in an orthopedic hospital
Oliveira PR,Paula AP,Dal-Paz K,Felix CS
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2011,
Abstract: Priscila R Oliveira1, Adriana P Paula1, Karine Dal-Paz1, Cassia S Felix1, Flavia Rossi2, Jorge S Silva1, Ana Lucia M Lima11Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department, 2Pathology Department, University of S o Paulo, S o Paulo, BrazilIntroduction: In recent decades, antimicrobial resistance has become a public health problem, particularly in cases of healthcare-associated infections. Interaction between antibiotic consumption and resistance development is of particular interest regarding Gram-negative bacilli, whose growing resistance has represented a great challenge.Objective: Assess the impact of restriction of cefepime use on antimicrobial susceptibility among the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) most frequently involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAI).Methods: Data relating to hospital occupancy and mortality rates, incidence of HAI, incidence of GNB as causative agents of HAI, antimicrobial consumption at the hospital and antimicrobial susceptibility of GNB related to HAI were compared between two periods: a 24-month period preceding restriction of cefepime use and a 24-month period subsequent to this restriction.Results: There was a significant drop in cefepime consumption after its restriction. Susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumanii improved relating to gentamicin, but it worsened in relation to imipenem, subsequent to this restriction. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there was no change in antimicrobial susceptibility. For Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, there were improvements in susceptibility relating to ciprofloxacin.Conclusion: Restriction of cefepime use had a positive impact on K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, given that after this restriction, their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin improved. However, for A. baumanii, the impact was negative, given the worsening of susceptibility to imipenem.Keywords: ecological studies, cross infection, drug resistance, microbial, Gram-negative bacilli, cefepime
Weak convergence of finite element approximations of linear stochastic evolution equations with additive Lévy noise
Mihály Kovács,Felix Lindner,René L. Schilling
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We present an abstract framework to study weak convergence of numerical approximations of linear stochastic partial differential equations driven by additive L\'evy noise. We first derive a representation formula for the error which we then apply to study space-time discretizations of the stochastic heat equation, a Volterra-type integro-differential equation, and the wave equation as examples. For twice continuously differentiable test functions with bounded second derivative (with an additional condition on the second derivative for the wave equation) the weak rate of convergence is found to be twice the strong rate. The results extend earlier work by two of the authors as we consider general square-integrable infinite-dimensional L\'evy processes and do not require boundedness of the test functions and their first derivative. Furthermore, the present framework is applicable to both hyperbolic and parabolic equations, and even to stochastic Volterra integro-differential equations.
Impact of restriction of cefepime use on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli related to healthcare-associated infections in an orthopedic hospital
Oliveira PR, Paula AP, Dal-Paz K, Felix CS, Rossi F, Silva JS, Lima ALM
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S22491
Abstract: ct of restriction of cefepime use on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli related to healthcare-associated infections in an orthopedic hospital Original Research (2930) Total Article Views Authors: Oliveira PR, Paula AP, Dal-Paz K, Felix CS, Rossi F, Silva JS, Lima ALM Published Date August 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 149 - 154 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S22491 Priscila R Oliveira1, Adriana P Paula1, Karine Dal-Paz1, Cassia S Felix1, Flavia Rossi2, Jorge S Silva1, Ana Lucia M Lima1 1Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department, 2Pathology Department, University of S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Brazil Introduction: In recent decades, antimicrobial resistance has become a public health problem, particularly in cases of healthcare-associated infections. Interaction between antibiotic consumption and resistance development is of particular interest regarding Gram-negative bacilli, whose growing resistance has represented a great challenge. Objective: Assess the impact of restriction of cefepime use on antimicrobial susceptibility among the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) most frequently involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Methods: Data relating to hospital occupancy and mortality rates, incidence of HAI, incidence of GNB as causative agents of HAI, antimicrobial consumption at the hospital and antimicrobial susceptibility of GNB related to HAI were compared between two periods: a 24-month period preceding restriction of cefepime use and a 24-month period subsequent to this restriction. Results: There was a significant drop in cefepime consumption after its restriction. Susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumanii improved relating to gentamicin, but it worsened in relation to imipenem, subsequent to this restriction. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there was no change in antimicrobial susceptibility. For Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, there were improvements in susceptibility relating to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Restriction of cefepime use had a positive impact on K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, given that after this restriction, their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin improved. However, for A. baumanii, the impact was negative, given the worsening of susceptibility to imipenem.
Examining the T Tauri system with SPHERE
Gergely Csépány,Mario van den Ancker,Péter ábrahám,Wolfgang Brandner,Felix Hormuth
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526201
Abstract: Context. The prototypical low-mass young stellar object, T Tauri, is a well-studied multiple system with at least three components. Aims. We aim to explore the T Tau system with the highest spatial resolution, study the time evolution of the known components, and re-determine the orbital parameters of the stars. Methods. Near-infrared classical imaging and integral field spectrograph observations were obtained during the Science Verification of SPHERE, the new high-contrast imaging facility at the VLT. The obtained FWHM of the primary star varies between 0.050" and 0.059", making these the highest spatial resolution near-infrared images of the T Tauri system obtained to date. Results. Our near-infrared images confirm the presence of extended emission south of T Tau Sa, reported in the literature. New narrow-band images show, for the first time, that this feature shows strong emission in both the Br-{\gamma} and H2 1-0 S(1) lines. Broadband imaging at 2.27 {\mu}m shows that T Tau Sa is 0.92 mag brighter than T Tau Sb, which is in contrast to observations from Jan. 2014 (when T Tau Sa was fainter than Sb), and demonstrates that T Tau Sa has entered a new period of high variability. The newly obtained astrometric positions of T Tau Sa and Sb agree with orbital fits from previous works. The orbit of T Tau S (the center of gravity of Sa and Sb) around T Tau N is poorly constrained by the available observations and can be fit with a range of orbits ranging from a nearly circular orbit with a period of 475 years to highly eccentric orbits with periods up to 2.7*10^4 years. We also detected a feature south of T Tau N, at a distance of $144 \pm 3$ mas, which shows the properties of a new companion.
óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle da podrid?o mole em alface crespa
Silva, Cristiane L;Souza, Elineide B;Felix, Kátia CS;Santos, Alice MG;Silva, Márcia V;Mariano, Rosa LR;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362012000400012
Abstract: the effect of oils and plant extracts was evaluated for controlling soft rot in lettuce and assessed the influence of these products in physico-chemical characteristics of this vegetable. in the in vitro tests, filter paper discs were soaked in eleven essential oils (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1%) and twenty plant extracts (10, 40, 70 and 100%) being deposited on a culture medium containing pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (strain pcc a1). the zones of inhibition were measured after 24 and 48 h of incubation. in the greenhouse, plants of cv. veneranda were treated with eleven oils (0.5 and 1%), twenty extracts (10%) and mycoshield? (3 g l-1) and after 72 h were inoculated with pcc a1. we evaluated the disease severity with an interval of six hours until 48 h, and the area under the disease progress curve (audpc) was calculated. in a similar experiment plants treated with corymbia citriodora oil, seven plant extracts and mycoshield? were analyzed for soluble solids, vitamin c, acidity and ph. strain pcc a1 was not inhibited in vitro. two oils (c. citriodora and c. sinensis) and seven extracts (parkinsonia aculeata, chamaecrista cytisoides, sida galherensis, polygala violaceae, c. desvauxii and pityrocarpa moniliformis) significantly reduced disease severity in comparison to control, without differing from mycoshield?. on the other hand aacpd was reduced by eight oils and ten extracts. it is worth to notice that severity and audpc were reduced by eucalyptus oil at 0.5% (3.6, 83.35) and by the extract of s. galherensis (3.5, 88.25) with the same efficiency as mycoshield? when compared to control (7.5, 132.3). the levels of vitamin c, acidity and ph were not altered in leaves of lettuce treated with eucalyptus oil and extracts of p. aculeata and c. cytisoides.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON LARGE HYDROPHOBIC RESIDUES AND SMALL HYDROPHOBIC RESIDUES IN DIFFERENT ORGANISMS
VINOBHA CS,VINOBHA CS
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research , 2011,
Abstract: One of the major tasks carried by biologist today is to understand the nature of proteins. How this largeprotein molecule folds themselves into some form and carryout the prescribed biochemical reactions.Hydrophobic interaction is the dominant force towards this task. To understand this interaction, a simple statisticalanalysis on the contribution of hydrophobic residues was carried out. Large Hydrophobic Residues (LHR) such asPhenylalanine (F), Isoleucine (I), Leucine (L), Methionine (M) and Valine (V) – (FILMV) as well as smallhydrophobic residues (SHR) Glycine (G), Alanine (A), Proline (P), Cysteine (C) and Tryptophan (W) - (GAPCW)were studied in all proteins of given organisms. The organisms include Homo sapiens, Macaca Mullatta, Pantroglodytes, Canis familiaris, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, Drosophilamelonogaster, Monodelphis domestica, Danio rerio, Stronglycentrolus purpuratus, Anopheles gambiae, Apismellifera, Arabidopsis thaliana, Tribolium castaneum, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Schizosaccharomyces pombeand Caenorhabditis elegans. It is observed that the protein prefers to have 27% large hydrophobic residues tomaintain the required hydrophobicity. In animal, particularly in human, it is observed less. It is interesting to notethat small hydrophobic residues balance this lack in number by a factor of 1:3. So is the reason why the length ofthe animal proteins increases. This new finding on the contribution of hydrophobic residues in protein stability willbe discussed in detail
Do We Need Dark Energy to Explain the Cosmological Acceleration?  [PDF]
Felix M. Lev
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.329153
Abstract: The phenomenon of the cosmological acceleration discovered in 1998 is usually explained as a manifestation of a hypothetical field called dark energy which is believed to contain more than 70% of the energy of the Universe. This explanation is based on the assumption that empty space-time background should be flat and hence a nonzero curvature of the background is a manifestation of a hidden matter. We argue that quantum theory should proceed not from space-time background but from a symmetry algebra. Then the cosmological acceleration can be easily and naturally explained from first principles of quantum theory without involving empty space-time background, dark energy and other artificial notions. We do not assume that the reader is an expert in the given field and the content of the paper can be understood by a wide audience of physicists.
Great Expectations—Narratives and the Elicitation of Aesthetic Chills  [PDF]
Felix Schoeller, Leonid Perlovsky
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.616205
Abstract: We clarify the relation between the perception of narratives and aesthetic emotions by relating them to mechanisms of knowledge-acquisition. Stories elicit emotions by diverging from expectations one may formulate on the basis of their properties. The greater the divergence, the stronger the emotion. Models of emotions, expectations, and knowledge-acquisition are briefly presented. We relate them to research pertaining to narrative structures and provide a mathematical description for aesthetic emotions. We conclude by underlining the fundamental role played by aesthetic emotions in the workings of the human mind.
Editorial Circumcision: Controversies and Prospects
CS Lukong
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report , 2011,
Abstract: Click on the link to view the editorial. Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Jul-Dec 2011 | Vol-3 | Issue-2
Evaluating the rural health placements of the Rural Support Network at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town
CS Naidu
South African Family Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives: The Rural Support Network (RSN) is an undergraduate student society that aims to raise awareness among the student body of the plight of rural health in South Africa, and organises individual and group placements in rural hospitals during vacations. This research aimed to evaluate these placements from the students’ perspectives. Design: In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 10 students and nine placement-reflective reports were reviewed. The data were analysed and coded for key themes using a constant, comparative grounded theory approach. Setting: Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) at the University of Cape Town. Subjects: Students who had been on RSN placements in 2010. Results: Students reported that the experience exceeded their expectations of learning new skills and observing and performing procedures. They gained significant insights into rural health care and were inspired to contribute to rural health in future. Their experiences helped them to gain confidence and an appreciation of the psycho-social aspects of patient care. The importance of community empowerment and of connecting and building relationships with communities was also emphasised. Challenges pertained to conflict within groups, incidents of unprofessional health care and being unable to help as much as they would have liked. Conclusion: The study highlights the impact that positive experiences of rural health may have on health science students’ interest in, passion for, and commitment to practising in underserved rural areas. Students’ key recommendations for the FHS included the development of a rural programme within the undergraduate curriculum. Better group composition and improved planning and co-ordination of placements by the RSN were also recommended.
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