Abstract:
A distinct feature of Coulomb gauge QCD is that it can be formulated in terms of physical, transverse gluons and quarks alone. The state-counting is then transparent, and the gauge is suited for studies of the excited spectrum. Leaving aside exotic spectroscopy, which has been the subject of other publications, in this note I call attention on two recent applications. One is that the running quark mass in the mid-infrared can be probed from excited baryons thanks to parity doubling, a consequence of insensitivity to chiral symmetry breaking. Fast quarks are asymptotically free and behave as massless, so hadrons containing fast quarks decouple from the condensate. Their (power-law) rate of decoupling reflects on the rate of decreasing parity splittings, which can be measured. The second is that, in analogy with the Franck-Condon principle of molecular physics, the velocity distribution of the heavy quarks inside a heavy hadron can be mapped out by the velocity distribution of its open-flavor decay products. This is exemplified by recent data from the Belle collaboration taken at the Upsilon(10860).

Abstract:
We briefly report a calculation of the viscosity of a pion gas at finite temperature and chemical potential using three different models for the pion-pion interaction. The results for the Inverse Amplitude Method interpolation yield a viscosity of order (m_pi^3) up to temperatures of order m_pi. The calculation is performed within the kinetic theory of gases, by approximately solving the Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation with relativistic kinematics.

Abstract:
We propose the left-side electrification of multilane motorways in suburban areas as a practical way of implementing on-road charging in order to reduce the weight and price of electrically-powered automobiles. These could then be supplied energy en-route, significantly reducing the weight and cost of vehicle-mounted batteries. Our theoretical study is based on the circumstances of Madrid (Spain), a six million inhabitant region, but should be easily adaptable to other metropolitan areas.

Abstract:
A computation of the quotient of shear viscosity to entropy density, or KSS number $\eta/s$ is performed, in the non-relativistic and classical regime, first in Chiral Perturbation Theory, and then in the $SO(g+1)/SO(g)$ Non-Linear Sigma Model in the large $g$ limit. Both are field theories stemming from a renormalizable Sigma Model but in spite of that, we explicitly calculate how one undercomes the KSS bound by increasing the number of degenerate pions sufficiently. However we argue that particle production could still keep the validity of the KSS bound in the weak sense. We also show how a large number of molecular isomers (that we estimate in terms of simple molecular properties) could undercome the bound in the strong sense. This might be possible with carbon-based molecules. We finally argue that a measurement of $\eta/s$ in Heavy Ion Collisions might be turned into an upper bound on the number of hadron resonances.

Abstract:
Three decades of work on the quantum field equations of pure Yang-Mills theory have distilled two families of solutions in Landau gauge. Both coincide for high (Euclidean) momentum with known perturbation theory, and both predict an infrared suppressed transverse gluon propagator, but whereas the solution known as "scaling" features an infrared power law for the gluon and ghost propagators, the "massive" solution rather describes the gluon as a vector boson that features a finite Debye screening mass. In this work we examine the gauge dependence of these solutions by adopting stochastic quantization. What we find, in four dimensions and in a rainbow approximation, is that stochastic quantization supports both solutions in Landau gauge but the scaling solution abruptly disappears when the parameter controlling the drift force is separated from zero (soft gauge-fixing), recovering only the perturbative propagators; the massive solution seems to survive the extension outside Landau gauge. These results are consistent with the scaling solution being related to the existence of a Gribov horizon, with the massive one being more general. We also examine the effective action in Faddeev-Popov quantization that generates the rainbow and we find, for a bare vertex approximation, that the the massive-type solutions minimise the quantum effective action.

Abstract:
We assess the two-photon exchange contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen with forward dispersion relations. The subtraction constant $\bar T(0,Q^2)$ that is necessary for a dispersive evaluation of the forward doubly-virtual Compton amplitude, through a finite energy sum rule, is related to the fixed J=0 pole generalized to the case of virtual photons. We evaluated this sum rule using excellent virtual photoabsorption data that are available. We find that the "proton polarizability correction" to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen is $-(40\pm5)\mu$eV. We conclude that nucleon structure-dependent uncertainty by itself is unlikely to resolve the large (300$\mu$eV) discrepancy between direct measurement of the Lamb shift in $\mu H$ and expectations based on conventional Hydrogen measurements.

Abstract:
Potential-NRQCD offers an effective-theory based approach to heavy-quark physics. While meson Q-anti_Q computations are tractable in pure alpha_s-perturbation theory, more complex many-body quark systems transcend it. A possibility inherited from nuclear physics is to employ the perturbative static potentials in a numerical diagonalization, eventually obtaining the exact lowest eigenvalue in each channel for a given-order perturbative potential. The power counting is manifest in the potential instead of the spectrum. The NNLO-potential for the 3-body problem is already available, so we have addressed triply-heavy baryons in this initial work with a computer-aided 2-parameter variational treatment.

Abstract:
If cooled-down neutron stars have a thin atomic crystalline-iron crust, they must diffract X-rays of appropriate wavelength. If the diffracted beam is to be visible from Earth, the illuminating source must be very intense and near the reflecting star. An example is a binary system composed of two neutron stars in close orbit, one of them inert, the other an X-ray pulsar (perhaps an "anomalous" X-ray pulsar or magnetar, not powered by gas absorption from the companion or surrounding space, would be the cleanest example). The observable to be searched for is a secondary peak added (quasi-) periodically to the main X-ray pulse. The distinguishing feature of this secondary peak is that it appears at wavelengths related by simple integer numbers, lambda, lambda/2, lambda/3... lambda/n because of Bragg's diffraction law.

Abstract:
Heavy hadrons containing heavy quarks (for example, Upsilon-mesons) feature a scale separation between the heavy quark mass (about 4.5 GeV for the b-quark) and the QCD scale (about 0.3 GeV}) that controls effective masses of lighter constituents. Therefore, as in ordinary molecules, the de-excitation of the lighter, faster degrees of freedom leaves the velocity distribution of the heavy quarks unchanged, populating the available decay channels in qualitatively predictable ways. Automatically an application of the Franck-Condon principle of molecular physics explains several puzzling results of Upsilon(5S) decays as measured by the Belle collaboration, such as the high rate of Bs*-anti Bs* versus Bs*-anti Bs production, the strength of three-body B-anti B + pion decays, or the dip in B momentum shown in these decays. We argue that the data is showing the first Sturm-Liouville zero of the Upsilon(5S) quantum mechanical squared wavefunction, and providing evidence for a largely b-anti b composition of this meson.

Abstract:
The neutron is largely spherical and incompressible in atomic nuclei. These two properties are however challenged in the extreme pressure environment of a neutron star. Our variational computation within the Cornell model of Coulomb gauge QCD shows that the neutron (and also the Delta-3/2 baryon) can adopt cubic symmetry at an energy cost of about 150 MeV. Balancing this with the free energy gained by tighter neutron packing, we expose the possible softening of the equation of state of neutron matter.