Abstract:
The use of electrogenerated acetonitrile anion allows the alkylation of N-Boc-4-aminopyridine in very high yields, under mild conditions and without by-products. The high reactivity of this base is due to its large tetraethylammonium counterion, which leaves the acetonitrile anion “naked.” The deprotection of the obtained compounds led to high yields in N-alkylated 4-aminopyridines. Nonsymmetrically dialkylated 4-aminopyridines were obtained by subsequent reaction of monoalkylated ones with t-BuOK and alkyl halides, while symmetrically dialkylated 4-aminopyridines were obtained by direct reaction of 4-aminopyridine with an excess of t-BuOK and alkyl halides. Some mono- and dialkyl-4-aminopyridines were selected to evaluate antifungal and antiprotozoal activity; the dialkylated 4-aminopyridines 3ac, 3ae and 3ff showed antifungal towards Cryptococcus neoformans; whereas 3cc, 3ee and 3ff showed antiprotozoal activity towards Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. 1. Introduction N-Alkylated 4-aminopyridine is a common moiety in biologically active molecules. It is present, in fact, in compounds with different activities such as inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase [1], inhibitors of HIV-EP1 cellular transcription factor [2], inhibitors of coagulation Factor Xa [3], and -chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists in anti-HIV therapy [4]; in particular we have focused our work on the development of new CYP51 inhibitors, active both on fungal strains [5] and Trypanosoma Cruzi [6]. Many literature data evidenced that the pyridine group can efficaciously replace the heme-iron chelating azole moiety present in classical azole CYP51 inhibitors and, therefore, the alkylation of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) represents an important goal in organic synthesis to develop novel classes of antifungal and antiparasitic drugs [7, 8]. Due to the wide presence of these products, the alkylation of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) is therefore an important goal in organic synthesis. Different approaches to obtain N-alkylated 4-aminopyridines have been reported in the literature. Some examples are the efficient condensation of 4AP with alcohols catalyzed by benzaldehyde [9] or copper [10, 11] or magnetite [12], the reaction of 4AP with an acyl chloride, and the following reduction of the amide with LiAlH4 [13]. The most straightforward method, however, is the direct alkylation of 4AP with alkyl halides, although it suffers from some drawbacks. The two different nitrogen atoms compete in the alkylation reaction and usually the more nucleophilic pyridine nitrogen atom reacts faster, leading to the

Abstract:
The discovery and the application of nuclear energy constitute the most important technological achievement of the past century. However, the development and the exploitation of this technology have been remarkably smaller than foreseeable. An overview of the significant features of the nuclear technology including the comparison with competitive energy sources is made. The “embedded” safety engineering and the pollution are discussed and the main features are mentioned. Indeed, nuclear technology can be applied for the sustainable society development by producing substantial amount of clean water from the ocean. The idea is to build up nuclear power plant sites that produce desalinated water and pump it several tens of kilometers away to form a lake into a desert region. This could help to establish the conditions for an agriculture-based civilization.

Abstract:
We discuss R-symmetry in locally supersymmetric $N=2$ gauge theories coupled to hypermultiplets, which can be viewed as effective theories of heterotic string models. In this type of supergravities a suitable R-symmetry exists and can be used to topologically twist the theory. The vector multiplet of the dilaton-axion field has a different R-charge assignment with respect to the other vector multiplets.

Abstract:
In this paper we investigate an M/M/$\infty$ queue whose parameters depend on an external random environment that we assume to be a semi-Markovian process with finite state space. For this model we show a recursive formula that allows to compute all the factorial moments for the number of customers in the system in steady state. The used technique is based on the calculation of the raw moments of the measure of a bidimensional random set. Finally the case when the random environment has only two states is deeper analyzed. We obtain an explicit formula to compute the above mentioned factorial moments when at least one of the two states has sojourn time exponentially distributed.

Abstract:
We prove a monotonicity condition satisfied by the Erlang C formula when computed in the Halfin-Whitt regime. This property was recently conjectured in Janssen et al. [2011].

Abstract:
This paper deals with the inaccuracy assessment of the friction pressure loss estimation based on Darcy formula combined with an equivalent hydraulic diameter and a friction factor valid for circular pipes when applied to a square rod bundle. The assessment has been done by comparing the analytical and semi-empirical predictions with two different CFD codes results: CFX and NEPTUNE_CFD. Two different analytical approaches have been considered: the whole-bundle and sub-channel approaches, both for laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Looking at results, it is reasonable to assume that an error in the range of 11% - 23% is likely when using equivalent diameter in the laminar regime. In the case of turbulent regime, the equivalent diameter works better and the error is in the range between a few percent and ~12%.

Abstract:
In the last four decades, large efforts have been undertaken to provide reliable thermal-hydraulic system codes for the analyses of transients and accidents in nuclear power plants. Whereas the first system codes, developed at the beginning of the 1970s, utilized the homogenous equilibrium model with three balance equations to describe the two-phase flow, nowadays the more advanced system codes are based on the so-called “two-fluid model” with separation of the water and vapor phases, resulting in systems with at least six balance equations. The wide experimental campaign, constituted by the integral and separate effect tests, conducted under the umbrella of the OECD/CSNI was at the basis of the development and validation of the thermal-hydraulic system codes by which they have reached the present high degree of maturity. However, notwithstanding the huge amounts of financial and human resources invested, the results predicted by the code are still affected by errors whose origins can be attributed to several reasons as model deficiencies, approximations in the numerical solution, nodalization effects, and imperfect knowledge of boundary and initial conditions. In this context, the existence of qualified procedures for a consistent application of qualified thermal-hydraulic system code is necessary and implies the drawing up of specific criteria through which the code-user, the nodalization, and finally the transient results are qualified.

Abstract:
Within the licensing process of the KWU Atucha II PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor), the BEPU (Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty) approach has been selected for issuing of the Chapter 15 on FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). The key steps of the entire process are basically two: (a) the selection of PIE (Postulated Initiating Events) and (b) the analysis by best estimate models supported by uncertainty evaluation. Otherwise, key elements of the approach are (1) availability of qualified computational tools including suitable uncertainty method, (2) demonstration of quality, and (3) acceptability and endorsement by the licensing authority. The effort of issuing Chapter 15 is terminated at the time of issuing of the present paper, and the safety margins available for the operation of the concerned NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) have been quantified. 1. Introduction Among the general attributes of a methodology to perform accident analysis of a nuclear power plant for licensing purposes, the very first one should be the compliance with the established regulatory requirements. A second attribute deals with the adequacy and the completeness of the selected spectrum of events which should consider the combined contributions of deterministic and probabilistic methods. The third attribute is connected with the availability of qualified tools and analytical procedures suitable for the analysis of accident conditions envisaged in the concerned Nuclear Power Plant. Thus, a modern and technically consistent approach has been built upon best estimate methods including an evaluation of the uncertainty in the calculated results (Best Estimate Plus Uncertainties or BEPU approach). The complexity of an NPP and of the accident scenarios may put a challenge for a conservative analysis and may justify the choice for a BEPU approach in the licensing process. This implies two main needs: the need to adopt and to prove (to the regulatory authority) an adequate quality for the computational tools and the need for the uncertainty. The purpose of the present paper is to outline key aspects of the BEPU process aimed at the licensing of the Atucha II NPP in Argentina. The Atucha II is a heavy-water cooled heavy-water moderated, vessel-type, pressurized reactor. The moderator fluid has the same pressure as the coolant fluid, but temperature is lower. Fuel channels, which do not withstand pressure difference during nominal operation, separate the coolant from the moderator. The thermal power in the moderator is used to preheat the feed-water. A direct link with the bases of nuclear

Abstract:
The evaluation of uncertainty constitutes the necessary supplement of best-estimate calculations performed to understand accident scenarios in water-cooled nuclear reactors. The needs come from the imperfection of computational tools, on the one side, and the interest in using such a tool to get more precise evaluation of safety margins. The paper reviews the salient features of three independent approaches for estimating uncertainties associated with predictions of complex system codes. Namely, the propagations of code input error and calculation output error constitute the keywords for identifying the methods of current interest for industrial applications, while the adjoint sensitivity-analysis procedure and the global adjoint sensitivity-analysis procedure, extended to performing uncertainty evaluation in conjunction with concepts from data adjustment and assimilation, constitute the innovative approach. Throughout the developed methods, uncertainty bands can be derived (both upper and lower) for any desired quantity of the transient of interest. For one case, the uncertainty method is coupled with the thermal-hydraulic code to get the code with capability of internal assessment of uncertainty, whose features are discussed in more detail.

Abstract:
We review some results on the connection among supergravity central charges, BPS states and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. In particular, N = 2 super-gravity in four dimensions is studied in detail. For higher N supergravities we just give an account of the general theory specializing the discussion to the N = 8 case when one half of supersymmetry is preserved. We stress the fact that for extremal supergravity black holes the entropy formula is topological, that is the entropy turns out to be a moduli independent quantity and can be written in terms of invariants of the duality group of the supergravity theory.