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A General Purpose Analysis Package  [PDF]
Stefano Federico
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.22022
Abstract: This paper presents a general-purpose analysis package able to solve two- and three- dimensional analysis problems. The system can use the following methods of solution: Successive Approximation (SA), Optimal Interpolation (OI), and 3D-Var. Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. The analysis package was applied to produce analyses at 6 h time interval for the period 1-11 August 2008. The period was selected for data availability and forty-one analyses were collected. The results show the validity of the different solutions, which can be chosen depending on the physical problem to solve and on the computational resources available. In particular, assuming the observations as the reference, all solutions show a decrease of the RMSE compared to the background. The decrease is consistent with the particular setting of the analysis system used in this paper. The comparison between different solutions shows that the SA converges to OI in few iterations, and that the SA solution with ten iteration is, in practice, equal to OI. Moreover, the 3D-Var method shows its potential to improve the analysis, once the horizontal and vertical length-scales and the background and observational errors are set optimally, because its solution may be sizeably different from two-dimensional methods.
Emerging Trends and Old Habits in Higher Education Management: Focus on the Public vs. Private Funding Debate  [PDF]
Federico Barnabè
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326152
Abstract: This work takes into consideration the wide reform process that is impacting on Universities all over the world, especially focusing on the public versus private funding debate for Higher Education Institutions. In this regard, the paper provides some considerations on possible funding sources, discusses data related to the relevance of public funding and presents the features of the main models of public funding across many countries, particularly focusing on Europe.
Preliminary Results of a Data Assimilation System  [PDF]
Stefano Federico
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31009

A data assimilation system combines all available information on the atmospheric state in a given time-window to produce an estimate of atmospheric conditions valid at a prescribed analysis time. Nowadays, increased computing power coupled with greater access to real-time asynoptic data is paving the way toward a new generation of high-resolution (i.e. on the order of 10 km) operational mesoscale analyses and forecasting systems. Moreover, better initial conditions are increasingly considered of the utmost importance for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at the short range (0 - 12 h). This paper presents a general-purpose data assimilation system, which is coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) to give the analyses for: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. In order to show its potential, the data assimilation systems applied to produce analyses over Central Europe. For this application the background field is given by a short-range forecast (12 h) of the RAMS and analyses are produced by 2D-Var with 0.25? horizontal resolution. Results show the validity of the analyses because they are closer to the observations, consistently with the settings of the data assimilation system. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the forecast, the analyses are then used as initial conditions of a short-range (6 h) forecast of the RAMS model. The results show that the RMSE is effectively reduced for the one- and two hours forecast, with some improvement for the three-hours forecast.

Photovoltaic Prickle Pear Harvesting Tool  [PDF]
Federico Hahn
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.43033

Mexico is the largest cactus exporter of the world and 40% of the production cost is provided from the harvest operation. Many workers are required to operate daily and suffer wrist pain after two weeks of collecting pears with mechanical pruners. A motor driven tool supplied from a photovoltaic system was employed for harvesting; different blades were tested at different cutting speeds. It was found that toothed blades sliced the pears with efficiencies over 90%. Abrasive blades were finally selected as the current required per cut was minimum, permitting a longer battery lifetime before requiring recharging.

One Dimensional Relativistic Particle in a Quadratic Dissipative Medium Subjected to a Force That Depends on the Position  [PDF]
Federico Petrovich
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69122
Abstract: We will find a constant of motion with energy units for a relativistic particle moving in a quadratic dissipative medium subjected to a force which depends on the position. Then, we will find the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian of the equation of motion in a time interval such that the velocity does not change its sign. Finally, we will see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian have some problems.
Coupled Effects of Energy Dissipation and TravellingVelocity in the Run-Out Simulation of High-SpeedGranular  [PDF]
Francesco Federico, Giuseppe Favata
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.23030
Abstract: The run-out of high speed granular masses or avalanches along mountain streams, till their arrest, is analytically modeled. The power balance of a sliding granular mass along two planar sliding surfaces is written by taking into account the mass volume, the slopes of the surfaces, the fluid pressure and the energy dissipation. Dissipation is due to collisions and displacements, both localized within a layer at the base of the mass. The run-out, the transition from the first to the second sliding surface and the final run-up of the mass are described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), solved in closed form (particular cases) or by means of numerical procedures (general case). The proposed solutions allow to predict the run-up length and the speed evolution of the sliding mass as a function of the involved geometrical, physical and mechanical parameters as well as of the simplified rheological laws assumed to express the energy dissipation effects. The corresponding solutions obtained according to the Mohr-Coulomb or Voellmy resistance laws onto the sliding surfaces are recovered as particular cases. The run-out length of a documented case is finally back analysed through the proposed model.
Entry and Collusion after Market Opening  [PDF]
Federico Boffa, Davide Vannoni
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23058
Abstract: We analyze a setting typical of industries right after liberalization, or after structural demand and technology changes. An incumbent firm has an exogenous capacity, and a new entrant has to set its capacity level. We find that, in a dynamic context, higher capacity increases the severity of punishment after deviation, thereby favoring the emergence of cartels. The cartel in this case could hurt welfare, not only because of the standard deadweight loss motive, but also because of the cost inefficiency due to high and idle capacity. We conjecture that a competitive arrangement could be both welfare enhancing and profit-maximizing for the incumbent.
The Effect of Federal Government Size on Long-Term Economic Growth in the United States, 1791-2009  [PDF]
Federico Guerrero, Elliott Parker
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.38120
Abstract: We consider whether there is statistical evidence for a causal relationship between federal government expenditures and growth in real GDP in the United States, using available data going back to 1791. After studying the time-series properties of these variables for stationarity and cointegration, we investigate Granger causality in detail in the context of a Vector Error Correction Model. While we find causal evidence that faster GDP growth leads to faster growth in government spending, we find no evidence supporting the common assertion that a larger government sector leads to slower economic growth.
Consonance of Complex Tones with Harmonics of Different Intensity  [PDF]
Antonio Bernini, Federico Talamucci
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2014.42008
Abstract: The starting point of this study is the theory of tonal consonance by Plomp and Levelt. The major reference point is the theory of Critical Band and its use for evaluating consonance of simple tones. On the basis of such empirical criterion, our aim consists in providing a method of estimating the value of consonance of complex tones, by taking account not only of the number of harmonics, but also of the intensity of the partials which contribute to forming the tone. By introducing a specific algorithm, the level of consonance of a chord of complex tones is expressed in terms both of frequency differences and sound intensity of the partials. The results give rise to a series of considerations and applications, ranging from displaying the order of consonance of all intervals within the octave up to evaluating the hierarchy of chords in the frame of a musical scale.
In Vitro Evaluations for a New Topical Anti-Aging Formulation  [PDF]
Francesco Scarci, Federico Mailland
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.45041

The study aimed to evaluate the in vitro properties of a new gel formulation (P-3086) as anti-aging treatment. Two in vitro methods aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of the gel formulation in reducing oxidative damages, artificially induced by UVA on skin-derived keratinocytes and in promoting the synthesis of collagen, compared with other four formulations. P-3086 reduced reactive oxygen species production after UVA stress with the highest effect observed at 0.016 mg/ml and 0.031 mg/ml concentration. P-3086 also promoted the collagen synthesis faster when compared with other formulations. The new gel product, based on hyaluronic acid, Vitamin E and Humulus lupulus, showed a good efficacy as anti-aging effect reducing the oxidative damages derived by the action of ROS, moreover stimulating the synthesis of one of the components of the connective tissue, the collagen.

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