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Renewable Resources Future and Awareness in Saudi Arabia, Solar Photovoltaic as a Model  [PDF]
Faten Dhawi
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2018.94008
Abstract: The global awareness regarding economy expansion and environmental preservation in the same time made the solar energy investment a vivid topic nowadays more than before. The solar energy project or the new Saudi oil made by the crown prince Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud was the focus of the current study. We designed the questionnaire with three categories to assess citizens of Saudi Arabia awareness about solar energy represented by photovoltaic system. The responses collected electronically from 424 respondents ranged between 18 - 41 years old to examine their awareness and acceptance of the solar system. The results showed a positive tendency of solar panel installment and use instead of electricity as source of energy. The respondents’ confidence of photovoltaic use ability to reduce electricity bills was positive. Moreover, the Saudi public awareness and approval of electricity bills regulation were in agreement with the government policy. Around 30% of respondents thought that solar energy is the sole source of energy where they resident. While 75% of respondents thought, they might get greater benefit from solar energy in comparison of the other renewable resources as wind and earth energy. The study emphasized the great awareness of Saudi public views analogues with the global trend and energy shift. The Photovoltaic (PV) system will be the vital investment in Saudi Arabia near future with great approval of public and government system.
Poor-Soil Rhizosphere Enriched with Different Microbial Activities Influence the Availability of Base Elements  [PDF]
Faten Dhawi, Anna Hess
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2017.78033
Abstract: Understanding the ecology of soil rhizosphere is essential to enhancing soil ecosystem and plants productivity. Poor-soil properties can limit rhizosphere microbial composition, interactions and plants productivity. Furthermore, the presence of plant exudates and microbial interation can change the rhizosphere dynamic. In the current study, we used two types of soils, rich nutrient soil represented by potting-soil and poor-soil represented with nutrient-deprived poor-soil. The two types of soil were inoculated with five microbial combinations using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and mycorrhiza, and planted with two-day-old sorghum bicolor and Setaria italica (Foxtail millet) seedlings. Soil elements analyses were conducted 60 days after planting. The availability of exchangeable base alkali elements (Ca, Mg, Na) were measured and compared. Na was exclusively affected by PGPB inoculation in both soil types. Ca and Mg increased highest when associated with arbuscular inoculation, exclusively, in comparison to association with PGPB or Ectomycorrhiza in both soil types when planted with sorghum. Whereas, the same elements Ca and Mg, increased highest when associated with arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation whether combined with PGPB or ectomycorrhiza when in soil planted with Setaria italica. The mycorrhiza increased Ca and Mg availability when combined with PGPB. Naincrease was associated only with PGPB inoculation solely in both soil types. The use of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation combined with PGPB is ecofriendly method to enrich rhizosphere in poor-soil and eliminate the need to use any chemical fertilizers.
A Survey Based Study of Strategic Directions of Saudi Universities Aligned with Economic Development Supporting Vision of 2030  [PDF]
Faten Dhawi, Talal Albaqami
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2017.53016
Abstract: The role of universities is centered on education and qualification to raise the level of science and awareness in society. Considering the global economic changes, it is necessary to prepare universities to raise their level of physical in parallel with raising the academic and research level. In the current research, we conducted an electronic questionnaire targeting a random group of young men and women, the majority of whom were in the age group 20 to 35 years old. Responses ranged from strong approval to support and even total rejection of the use of paid services provided by the university, but the vast majority approved strongly. It was also found that most of the random sample concerned by the quality of the services provided by the university from workshops, courses and exhibitions to serve the rehabilitation of the labor. In addition, documentation of the attendance with a certificate was highly demanded. The results also indicated a general acceptance to pay 5% of the value of the profits of sales in case of presentation at the university and the nomination of the best price for the short courses of the university ranged from 100 - 200 Saudi Riyals (SAR). Therefore, the study shows a general acceptance of the concept of paid services because of the system of the free educational systems in Saudi Arabia, which makes the availability of short courses and workshops at an acceptable price is welcomed. Strengthening the financial resources of Saudi universities is a challenge that can be overcome while ensuring community cooperation and greater transparency. The means of strengthening financial resources can be limited using two methods. First, provide a variety of services at competitive prices. Second, reduce financial waste resulting from energy misuse of learning resources, such as chemicals, operating plants and devices, by linking the different faculties at the university to a single database. The data base will ensure to enable users of academics, researchers and graduate students to screen resources availability and avoid duplication of requests in case of adequate coverage.
Plant Growth-Prompting Bacteria Influenced Metabolites of Zea mays var. amylacea and Pennisetum americanum p. in a Species-Specific Manner  [PDF]
Faten Dhawi, Anna Hess
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2017.75011
Abstract: Poor soil is one of the agricultural world’s principal challenges, inciting the use of chemical fertilizer’s to improve overall soil quality. However, the use of chemical fertilizer has significant and cascading environmental consequences. Therefore, the use of beneficial microbes’ inoculation in treating poor soil is a considerably ecofriendly sustainable solution. In the current study, we supplemented nutrient-deprived soil with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacterial inoculations of Pseudomonas fluorescenswere added to the poor soil following two days post-sowing of Zea mays var. amylacea and Pennisetumamericanum p. seedlings. Metabolite analyses were conducted two months after treatment for both shoots and roots using nuclear magnetic resonance method (NMR). The data indicated significant changes in 19 metabolites relative to control in both plants shoot and roots. Among these metabolites, 7 were upregulated in roots of Zea mays var. amylacea, and 9 metabolites were upregulated in roots of Pennisetum
The effect of magnetic resonance imaging on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) elemental composition
Faten Dhawi,Jameel M. Al-Khayri
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science , 2009,
Abstract: In the last decade work with magnetic fields (MF), has become a common practice in modern life. The ability of a magnetic field to penetrate everything around its source, including living cells, has become a central point of the research. Studies show that MF affects biochemical processes and increases ion uptake, which leads to better plant growth. The goal of this study was to determine if the type of magnetic field, used in magnetic resonance imaging, has the potential to induce useful effects on plant nutrition. Seedling of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) established on filter paper for 15 days were exposed to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an intensity of 1500 mT for 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 min. After treatment, seedlings were grown in soil for 4 weeks. Tissue samples were then analyzed for their elemental composition using inductive couple plasma spectroscopy (ICP). The elements measured were Mg, Ca, Na, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results showed that increasing exposure, from 1 to 15 min increased the concentration of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Na and Zn, but decreased P concentration compared to the control. Increasing the ion content may improve date palm nutrition suggesting that MRI may have potential as a plant growth enhancer.
Heavy Metals in Lipstick Products Marketed in Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Faten M. Ali Zainy
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2017.74030
Abstract: The present study reports the content of 14 heavy metals (Al, Fe, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in twenty-two (n = 22) lipstick products of imported and locally manufactured at the local market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia using Inductivity Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The overall average contents of Al, Fe, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 3131.18 ± 0.09, 9642.92 ± 0.079, 46.59 ± 0.109, 0.545 ± 0.009, 2.041 ± 0.024, 1371.439 ± 0.085, 0.134 ± 0.008, 4.242 ± 0.02, ND, 3.934 ± 0.03, 19.712 ± 0.012, 20.196 ± 0.056, 0.725 ± 0.012, and 858.666 ± 0.083 μg/g, respectively. The correction coefficient of the results is up to 0.9995, showing an excellent linear relationship between metal concentrations in samples. The results also revealed that, the total concentrations of toxic metals in various samples ranged from 1201.35 - 60,800.36 μg/g. The dark-colored lipstick samples 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 7B, B8, 9B, and 10B revealed high content of total toxic metals compared to the light-colored lipstick samples 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 4C, 5A, 7A, 8A, 9A, and 10A. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, and Zn in the samples within each class under investigation are relatively high whereas the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, and Pb are lowest; and Ti, Mn, and Ni contents were below 100 μg/g. Chromium was not detected in any sample. Since no safe limits for most of these metals relating to cosmetic products are available in Saudi Arabia, it is hard to ascertain whether the values obtained in this study are relatively high or low. Prolonged use of products containing these elements may pose a threat to human health and could damage the environment.
Existence of positive solutions for nonlinear boundary value problems in bounded domains of
Faten Toumi
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/aaa/2006/95480
Abstract: Let D be a bounded domain in ℝn(n≥2). We consider the following nonlinear elliptic problem: Δu=f(⋅,u) in D (in the sense of distributions), u|∂D=ϕ, where ϕ is a nonnegativecontinuous function on ∂D and f is a nonnegativefunction satisfying some appropriate conditions related to someKato class of functions K(D). Our aim is to prove that the aboveproblem has a continuous positive solution bounded below by afixed harmonic function, which is continuous on D¯. Next, we will be interested in the Dirichlet problem Δu=−ρ(⋅,u) in D (in the sense of distributions), u|∂D=0, where ρ is a nonnegative function satisfying some assumptions detailed below.Our approach is based on the Schauder fixed-point theorem.
Existence of blowup solutions for nonlinear problems with a gradient term
Faten Toumi
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/80605
Abstract: We prove the existence of positive explosive solutions for theequation Δu
Existence of Positive Bounded Solutions of Semilinear Elliptic Problems
Faten Toumi
International Journal of Differential Equations , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/134078
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the existence of bounded positive solution for the semilinear elliptic problem in subject to some Dirichlet conditions, where is a regular domain in ? with compact boundary. The nonlinearity is nonnegative continuous and the potential belongs to some Kato class . So we prove the existence of a positive continuous solution depending on by the use of a potential theory approach. 1. Introduction In this paper, we study the existence of positive bounded solution of semilinear elliptic problem where is a -domain in with compact boundary, and are fixed nonnegative constants such that , and when is bounded. The parameter is nonnegative, and the function is nontrivial nonnegative and continuous on . Numerous works treated semilinear elliptic equations of the type For the case of nonpositive function , many results of existence of positive solutions are established in smooth domains or in , for instance, see [1–5] and the references therein. In the case where changes sign, many works can be cited, namely, the work of Glover and McKenna [6], whose used techniques of probabilistic potential theory for solving semilinear elliptic and parabolic differential equations in . Ma and Song [7] adapted the same techniques of those of Glover and McKenna to elliptic equations in bounded domains. More precisely, the hypotheses in [6, 7] require in particular that and on each compact, there is a positive constant such that . In [8], Chen et al. used an implicit probabilistic representation together with Schauder's fixed point theorem to obtain positive solutions of the problem ( ). In fact, the authors considered a Lipschitz domain in , with compact boundary and imposed to the function to satisfy on , where is nonnegative Borel measurable function defined on and the potentials are nonnegative Green-tight functions in . In particular, the authors showed the existence of solutions of ( ) bounded below by a positive harmonic function. In [9], Athreya studied ( ) with the singular nonlinearity , , in a simply connected bounded -domain in . He showed the existence of solutions bounded below by a given positive harmonic function , under the boundary condition , where is a constant depending on , , and . Recently, Hirata [20] gave a Chen-Williams-Zhao type theorem for more general regular domains . More precisely, the author imposed to the function to satisfy where the potential belongs to a class of functions containing Green-tight ones. We remark that the class of functions introduced by Hirata coincides with the classical Kato class introduced for
Existence of positive solutions for nonlinear boundary value problems in bounded domains of n
Faten Toumi
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2006,
Abstract: Let D be a bounded domain in n ( n ≥ 2 ) . We consider the following nonlinear elliptic problem: Δ u = f ( , u ) in D (in the sense of distributions), u | D = , where is a nonnegative continuous function on D and f is a nonnegative function satisfying some appropriate conditions related to some Kato class of functions K ( D ) . Our aim is to prove that the above problem has a continuous positive solution bounded below by a fixed harmonic function, which is continuous on D ˉ . Next, we will be interested in the Dirichlet problem Δ u = ρ ( , u ) in D (in the sense of distributions), u | D = 0 , where ρ is a nonnegative function satisfying some assumptions detailed below. Our approach is based on the Schauder fixed-point theorem.
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