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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1313 matches for " Fatemeh Ghaffarifar "
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Effects of two anticoccidial drugs, Monensin, Toltrazuril and the mixture of them on Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro
Maryam Fathi,Javid Sadraei,Fatemeh Ghaffarifar
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that is a common cause of diarrhea in both animals and humans worldwide. There is no effective specific chemotherapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey and compare the anticryptosporidial effect of two anticoccidial drugs, Monensin, Toltrazuril and synergic effect on oocysts of C. parvum in vitro.Materials and methods: Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were isolated from the fecal samples of calves after purification, stored in Hanks Balance Salt Solution at 4°C. They were exposed to different concentrations of the drugs, Monensin, Toltrazuril and the mixture of them (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 10, 20, 60 and 100μg/ml). The effects of the drugs were evaluated by counting the complete oocysts after 24h and 48h incubation at 37°C. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the oocysts number related to the increase in the concentration and exposure time of the drugs. The mixture of two drugs had the highest efficacy on the C. parvum oocysts than each of drugs alone (P <0.001) and Monensin in contrast to Toltrazuril at the same concentration showed to be more effective (P<0.001). These drugs in all concentrations were effective on C. parvum oocysts, and at100μg/ml had the highest efficacy and at1μg/ml had the least. Conclusion: This study showed that two drugs were effective on C. parvum oocysts and Monensin was more effective than Toltrazuril and the mixture of them was more effective than each of them alone because of their synergism.
The Effect of Alkanna tincturia and Peganum harmala Extracts on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) in vitro
Ruhallah Yousefi,Fatemeh Ghaffarifar,Abdolhosein Dalimi Asl
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important health problem caused by Leishmania spp. As there is no vaccine, drug treatment is the only way to tackle leishmaniasis. In the present study, inhibitory and kill-ing effects of Peganum harmala and Alkana tinctoria extracts on amastigotes and promastigotes forms of Leishmania were evaluated in-vitro."nMethods: The seeds of Peganum harmala, Stems and roots of Alkanna tictoria were collected and crude extrac-tion carried out. In this experimental study, Leishmania major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% FBS at 22-26°C, and infected macrophages with amastigotes were cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% FBS at 37°C in 5% CO2. Then the extracts of each plant were added to cultivated parasites and incubated for 3 days. Promastigote and amastigote assay was carried out using counting assay based on growth inhibition."nResults: The results indicated that both extractions can inhibit the growth of promastigotes, and in concentra-tions of 40μg/ml of P. harmala , 200μg/ml of A. tincturia, and 20 μg/ml of equal combination of P. hamala and A. tincturia are Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) for parasites growth. By adding these concentra-tions of the extracts to the infected macrophages in the culture, their effects were separately eva-lu-ated. The mean of amastigotes number in macrophages in the culture with P. harmala, A. ticturia, combina-tion and control groups were 0.7, 0.7, 0.6, 2.3 amastigotes per macrophage, respectively."nConclusion: By this method, inhibition of intracellular and extracellular growth of L. major was demon-strated suggesting that, plant drugs with efficacy and safe products can be applied as new treatment for cutane-ous leishmaniasis.
Application of Real-Time PCR for Detection of pfcrt Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Iran
Jalousian Fatemeh,Dalimi Abdolhossein,Mirab Samiee Siamak,Ghaffarifar Fatemeh
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The main objective of present study was to evaluate the efficiency of real-time PCR technique for detection of 72-76 pfcrt gene mutations. In this regard, by using hybridization probes technology on light cycler instrument, the point mutations have been successfully detected in 28 blood samples collected from falciparum malaria patients in Chabahar in Southeast Iran. Our data showed pfcrt K76T mutation is present in 99% of samples. Three samples (10.7%) showed deletion in amino acid located in position 75, Asparagine, one of them was located at CVMK and two at SVMT alleles. Sequencing analysis of these samples was the same as real-time PCR result. Five samples were found with multi-clonal population of P. falciparum, which identified by the presence of the two peaks simultaneously in melting curve analysis. Real time PCR is found a sophisticated technique that can distinguish these mutations reliably with acceptable speed, high accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility.
The Effect of Betamethasone and IFN-γ on Replication of Toxoplasma gondii (RH Strain) and Nitric Oxide Production in HeLa Cell Culture
Fatemeh Ghaffarifar,Abdolhossein Dalimi Asl,Zohreh Sharifi,Sakineh Ghasemi
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2006,
Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is a protozoal infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis produce severe damage in patients who are immunosuppresed. In those who are immunosupressed, latent infection can be reactivated resulting in acute disseminating disease. Betamethasone is a synthetic glycocorticoid, used as an anti-inflamatory and immunosuppressant in a wide variety of disorders.The aim of this study was evaluation of betamethasone as an immunosuppressor drug on infected cells by Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, at first HeLa cells were grown in 24 well culture plates in culture medium .When confluent monolayer was obtained, we compared 6 groups to evaluate the effect of betamethasone as a corticosteroid drug (two concentrations 4 and 40μg/ml) and the effect of IFN-γ (100 IU/ml ) on growth, replication and Nitric Oxide (NO) production. The results showed, that high number of plaques were seen in group with 40 g/ml of betamethasone and the lowest number of plaques were seen in group with 100 IU of IFN- . The difference between plaque number in control and groups treated with IFN- and betamethasone was significant (P<0.05). The groups with betamethasone or IFN- without tachyzoites did not show any effect on cell structures. Replication rates in the wells treated with IFN- were decreased significantly 72h post inoculation in comparison with control group (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference among different groups in NO production. The results indicated that betamethasone increase the invasion of tachyzoites to host cells in vitro.
In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum
Saied Soflaei,Abdolhossein Dalimi,Fatemeh Ghaffarifar,Mojtaba Shakibaie,Ahmad Reza Shahverdi,Mohsen Shafiepour
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/756568
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5) were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100?μg/mL) of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50?μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25?μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations. 1. Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the most important tropical diseases with worldwide distribution [1]. The disease is reported in 88 countries around the world, and its prevalence is estimated to be approximately 12 million annually and about 350 million people are at the risk of the disease [1, 2]. About 90% of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are found in Brazil, Afghanistan, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia, and Syria, and about 90% cases of visceral leishmaniasis are reported in Bangladesh, Brazil, Nepal, India, and Sudan [3, 4]. Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) is characterized by the presence of fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, swollen lymph nodes, and weight loss that depends on the pathogenicity of Leishmania species and the host immune response against parasite [5, 6]. About 90% of the cases of this disease may lead to death if it is left without any treatment. Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV and other immunosuppression is becoming another serious problem, therefore the treatment methods mostly focus on induction of immune responses [5]. Pentavalent antimonials are a group of compounds used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. The compounds currently available for clinical use are sodium
Evaluation of Schistosoma haematobium Adult and Egg Antigens by ELISA in Diagnosis of Urinary Schistosomiasis
E Elkawaz,F Ghaffarifar
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: The aim of this study was using ELISA for detection of anti-Schistosoma haemato-bium antibodies in both sera and urine of patients with urinary schistosomiasis. "nMethods: Thirty three sera and urine samples were collected from patients with acute schisto-somi-asis in Diyala Province, east of Iraq in 2006. Their diseases were confirmed by find-ing S. haematobium ova in urine examination. Sera and urines of 10 healthy individuals as well as 5 patients with hydatidosis and 5 patients with acute toxoplasmosis were examined as well. Sam-ples were examined for antibody detection by ELISA method. The antigens used in this study were egg and adult antigens. "nResults: All positive samples (sera and urines) showed positivity by using egg antigen whereas the negative control samples were negative; only two samples with hydatidosis were positive with using serum sample whereas with urine sample only one sample was positive. In this study, the best sensitivity and specificity obtained when using urine and adult antigen. "nConclusion: Antibody detection by using urine is a useful, simple, and sensitive method for di-agnosis of schistosomiasis.
In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients
F Mohamadnezhad,F Ghaffarifar,A Dalimi
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eosine 0.1% and cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium supplemented with heat inactivated bovine serum 10%. All cultures were incubated in 37°C for 24-48 h. After this time trophozoites were exposed to different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 2, 10, 50 μg/ml) of drugs at 37o for 4 h. The IC50 estimated between 0.1 and 10μg/ml for metronidazole and 0.062 and 0.1 μg/ml for albendazole. Results: Eight isolates were found susceptible to the metronidazole while all isolates were found susceptible to the albendazole. Statistical results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the sensitivity to metronidazole and albendazole in all isolates.
In Vitro Effect of Folic Acid and Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) on Adhesion and Growth of Giardia lamblia
R Khademi,F Ghaffarifar,H Dalimi Asl
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2006,
Abstract: Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites infecting human in the world. The goal of this study was searching for in-vitro effect of folic acid and cobalamin on adhesion and growth of G. lamblia as two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis in TYI-S-33 medium. G. lamblia trophozoites were obtained by in- vitro excystation procedure. Three groups of Giardia trophozoites were analyzed: control group, G.lamblia was cultured in TYI-S-33 without any vitamin, 2nd group with 0.1 μg/ml vitamin B12 or folic acid, and 3rd group with 0.5 μg/ml of vitamin B12 or folic acid. All culture media tubes incubated at 37 oC. After 2 h of incubation, the adherence into borosilicate culture tubes, and after 24 h the growth of trophozoites were measured .The results showed that in vitamin B12 groups, the growth was increased significantly (P≤ 0.05) but the adherence decreased significantly (P≤ 0.05). Folic acid inhibited the growth rate significantly (P≤ 0.05), but it increased adherence in axenic culture significantly (P≤ 0.05). The results showed that vitamin B12 and folic acid altogether might reduce pathogenesis of G. lamblia by reducing adherence and growth, respectively.
A New and Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Pyrimido[2,1-b]Benzothiazole Derivatives  [PDF]
Fatemeh Chadegani, Fatemeh Darviche, Saeed Balalaie
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2012.21006
Abstract: The one-pot three-component reaction of 2-aminobenzothiazole, benzaldehyde derivatives and β-ketoester, β-diketone or malonate derivatives in solvent-free conditions provides the corresponding pyrimido [2,1-b] benzothiazole derivatives at 60?C in 60% - 72% yields without using any catalyst in an optimistic time.
Computer-Assisted analysis of subcellular localization signals and post-translational modifications of human prion proteins  [PDF]
Fatemeh Moosawi, Hassan Mohabatkar
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.21012
Abstract: In the present work, computational analyses were applied to study the subcellular localiza-tion and posttranslational modifications of hu-man prion proteins (PrPs). The tentative location of prion protein was determined to be in the nu-cleolus inside the nucleus by the following bio-informatics tools: Hum-PLoc, Euk-PLoc and Nuc-PLoc. Based on our results signal peptides with average of 22 base pairs in N-terminal were identified in human PrPs. This theoretical study demonstrates that PrP is post-translationally modified by: 1) attachment of two N-linked complex carbohydrate moieties (N181 and N197), 2) attachmet of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) at serine 230 and 3) formation of two di-sulfide bonds between “6–22” and “179–214” cysteines. Furthermore, ten protein kinase phosphorylation sites were predicted in human PrP. The above-noted phosphorylation was car-ried out by PKC and CK2. By using bioinfor-matics tools, we have shown that computation-ally human PrPs locate particularly into the nu-cleolus.
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