Abstract:
Introduction: Foot deformities are common among complaints of patients referred to the orthopedic centers. Most of naturally occurring lower limb deformities in children, which are rather common, would be corrected with further normal growth. However, a small percentage of these problems remain unresolved and may cause complications in the future. The main aim of this study is determination of prevalence of flat foot and hallux valgus deformity among primary school female students in Kiar city of Chaharmahal and BakhtiariMaterial and Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Foot posture index (FPI 6) test evaluate for 345 students in age range 7- 11 years and two groups of 7 to 9 years and 11 to 10 years. Also prevalence of hallux valgus among 345 students evaluated.Results: 7.8 % of studied subjects had flat foot deformity. Among 345 students, 12 (6.6%) students in range of age 7 -9 years and 15 (9.3 %) students in range of 10-11 had flat foot deformity. Also prevalence of hallux valgus was 16.5%.Conclusion: These findings point to the importance of proper physical examination, early diagnosis and on-time treatment of foot deformities such as flat foot and hallux valgus deformity in children.

Abstract:
Background and aim: The importance of cognitive resources was shown in dual task studies of postural control. However, there was no definite evidence on how verbal instructions influence the allocation of attention to postural control. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the effect of verbal instructions on postural performance.Materials and Methods: this Cross-sectional study was performed in 20 young adults (23.95 ± 3.31). Parallel standing/ hard surface, parallel standing/ foam surface, tandem standing/ hard surface were used as postural tasks and the choice reaction time task were conducted as cognitive task. Dual- task performance was measured under three different instructions including to pay attention to cognitive task, to postural task, and equal attention to both tasks. Results: Comparing the performance of postural tasks under three different instructions were conducted by One-way ANOVA and showed in parallel standing on hard surface (p=0.831), parallel standing on foam (p=0.433), tandem standing on hard surface (p=0.912) for path length of COP and instructions in parallel standing on hard surface (p=0.308), parallel standing on foam (p=0.414), tandem standing on hard surface (p=0.867) for mean velocity were not significant. Postural performance in single and dual task conditions was significant only in parallel standing/ foam surface (p=0.046).Conclusion: various instructions could not influence the amount of attention allocated to automatic postural tasks.

Abstract:
Cancer immunotherapy aims at enhancing immune system to defend against the tumor. However, it is associated with injecting small doses of tumor-bearing molecules or even using drugs. The problem is that how to schedule these injections effectively and/or how to apply drugs in a way to decrease toxic side effects of drugs such that the tumor growth to be stopped or at least to be limited. Here, the theory of optimal control has been applied to find the optimal schedule of injections of an immunotherapeutic agent against cancer. The numerical method employed works for any dynamic linear system and has almost precise solution. In this work, it was tested for a well known model of the tumor immune system interaction.

Abstract:
A prospective study during 1990-1995 was conducted to assess the risk of rejection and infection in kidney-transplant recipients, who's original kidney had vesico-ureteral reflux (VER). Two groups of recipients with and without VER were followed for one month after transplant; 24 and 250 cases respectively. The calculated relative risks for the effect of VER showed a moderate increased risk for rejection in VER group; (RR=1.82, CI=1.12-2.95, P<0.05). No effect was found for VER being one-or two-sided. Hence, VER has a moderate effect on rejection, but no effect on infection.

Abstract:
Femoral mononeuropathy is a complication of gynecological and urological operations. Tlte objective of this citse report is to bring to the attention of fellow urologists the very existence of this complication and offer measures to prevent it. A 48 year old obese worman with a 2 year history of frequent left renal colics, anil a nonfunction left kidney on IVP underwent a retrograde ureterogram study anil a transvaginal ureterolithotomy, in an exaggerated lithotomy position. Postoperatively, a left leg paralysis required 3 weeks of care and encouragement to heal. To prevent this complication, avoid putting too long and too much pressure by retractors on the psoas muscles. During the abdomino-perineal procedures, frequent change of retractor site and monitoring of distal arterial pulses would he helpful. Also, do not use the exaggerated lithotomy position for an extended period of time.

Abstract:
In this paper, He’s variational iterative method has been applied to give exact solution of the Euler Lagrange equation which arises from the variational problems with moving boundaries and isoperimetric problems. In this method, general Lagrange multipliers are introduced to construct correction functional for the variational problems. The initial approximations can be freely chosen with possible unknown constant, which can be determined by imposing the boundary conditions. Illustrative examples have been presented to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the variational iterative method.

Abstract:
In this paper, Bezier surface form is used to find the approximate solution of delay differential equations (DDE’s). By using a recurrence relation and the traditional least square minimization method, the best control points of residual function can be found where those control points determine the approximate solution of DDE. Some examples are given to show efficiency of the proposed method.

Abstract:
The hadronic and has been analyzed in “QCD factorization” approach and generalized factorization. The effective coefficients have been calculated for three helicity states which give three different contribution of amplitudes. We consider that J/ψ behaves as a light meson in compared to meson. For and , experimental data of branching ratios are (1.8 ± 0.5) × 10？3 and <5 × 10？4, respectively. Our best obtained results are (1.79 ± 0.01) × 10？3 at θ = 58° and (1.42 ± 0.01) × 10？3 at θ = 32° for decay. And we have 4.27 × 10？4 at θ = 58° and 3.45 × 10？4 at θ = 32° for , which are in agreement with experiment. 1. Introduction Recent experimental results sobtained by BABAR, Belle, and CLEO have opened an interesting area of research about production of axial-vector mesons in decays. Two body decays look for CP violation and overconstrain the CKM parameters in the Standard Model. Exclusive modes containing , , and , which have been extensively discussed in the literature have confirmed such expectation [1]. In this research, the two-body hadronic decays of meson into ( : vector, : axial-vector meson) are studied in QCD factorization method. First we introduce the structure of axial-vector meson. Then we study the hadronic decays and , particularly. There are two distinct types of axial-vector meson, namely, and . In the quark model, two nonets of axial-vector meson are expected as the orbital excitation of the system. In terms of the spectroscopic notation , there are two types of -wave mesons ( and ). These two nonets have distinctive quantum numbers, and , respectively. Experimentally, the nonet consists of , , , and , while the nonet has , , , and . There are two mixing effects for axial-vector meson: one is the mixing between and states, for example, and , and the other is mixing among or states themselves [2]. The meson behaves similarly to the vector meson this is not the case for the meson. For the latter, its decay constant vanishes in limit. Their light-cone distribution amplitudes are given by using the QCD sum rule method, and the chiral-even two-parton light-cone distribution amplitudes of the ( ) meson are symmetric (antisymmetric) under the exchange of quark and antiquark momentum fractions in the limit due to -parity. The decays involving an axial-vector meson and vector meson in final state have three polarization states. We have studied the two body decays involving axial-vector meson or , and a vector meson in final state. The simplest approach to obtain the hadronic matrix elements in decay amplitudes is naive factorization, where the matrix

Abstract:
The exclusive decay of is studied in the framework of the QCD factorization (QCDF) method and final state interaction (FSI). A direct decay is only occurred via a tree and a penguin based on the quark diagram analysis. The result that is found by using the QCDF method is less than the experimental result, so, the role of FSI is considered. The intermediate states , , , and via the exchange of and are contributed to the decay. The above intermediate states is calculated by using the QCDF method. In the FSI effects the results of our calculations depend on “η” as the phenomenological parameter. The range of this parameter are selected from 1 to 2. For the exchanged particles and , it is found that if is selected the numbers of the branching ratio are placed in the experimental range. The experimental branching ratio of decay is , and our prediction number is in the absence of FSI effects, and it becomes when FSI contributions are taken into account. 1. Introduction The importance of FSI in weak nonleptonic meson decays is investigated by using a relativistic chiral unitary approach based on coupled channels [1–3]. The chiral Lagrangian approach is proved to be reliable for evaluating hadronic processes, but there are too many free parameters which are determined by fitting data, so that its applications are much constrained. Therefore, we have tried to look for some simplified models which can give rise to reasonable estimation of FSI [4, 5]. The FSI can be considered as a rescattering process of some intermediate two-body states with one particle exchange in the t-channel and computed via the absorptive part of the hadronic loop level (HLL) diagrams. The calculation with the single-meson-exchange scenario is obviously much simpler and straightforward. Moreover, some theoretical uncertainties are included in an off-shell form factor which modifies the effective vertices. Since the particle exchanged in the t-channel is off shell and since final state particles are hard, form factors or cutoffs must be introduced to the strong vertices to render the calculation meaningful in perturbation theory. If the intermediate two body mesons are hard enough, so that the perturbative calculation can make sense and work perfectly well, but the FSI can be modelled as the soft rescattering of the intermediate mesons. When one or two intermediate meson can reach a low-energy region where they are not sufficiently hard, one can be convinced that at this region the perturbative QCD approach fails or cannot result in reasonable values. If the intermediate mesons are soft,

Abstract:
Many experts believe that the global financial crisis in 2008 is the worst of its kind since the Great Depression in 1929. The crisis was started from housing market in the US and spread quickly into financial markets. It has had a ripple effect around the world and many other industrialized economies were troubled by its consequences and almost every industry has been influenced by its outcomes. Online retail (or B2C e-Commerce) as a part of retail industry was not immune from the financial crisis and its sales has a dramatic decline. In this paper it is found that 3 factors are main players which have impacted on online retail sales including: less credit available; increasing saving rate and decreasing consumption expenditures and falling consumer confidence and sentiment. Also by representing several figures and tables, factors affecting this trend such as age class, income and gender are discussed.