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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325470 matches for " Farouk S. "
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Ascorbic Acid and α-Tocopherol Minimize Salt-Induced Wheat Leaf Senescence
Farouk S.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2011,
Abstract: BackgroundLeaf senescence is an oxidative process, and most of the catabolic events involved in senescence are propagated irreversibly once initiated. ResultsSalinity hastened the senescence of wheat flag leaves, decreased the concentrations of chlorophyll, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenol, calcium, potassium, magnesium, K+/Na+ ratio and soluble proteins, as well as the activities of catalase and peroxidase. Conversely, salinity increased sodium, chloride, and the chlorophylla:b ratio, as well as membrane permeability, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde synthesis. Both antioxidants application reduced the hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, membrane permeability, sodium and chloride content over control plants. The antioxidants enzyme activities were significantly increased by antioxidant spray. Enhanced accumulation of ascorbate, phenol, carotenoids, calcium, potassium and magnesium was seen in antioxidants-sprayed plants compared with control plants at 65 days after sowing. Under moderate and sever salinity levels application of both antioxidants alleviated the harmful effects of salinity on leaf senescence related parameter. The higher levels of antioxidants and low level of H2O2 in flag leaf may be the prerequisite for delayed leaf senescence in antioxidants-sprayed plants. ConclusionsIt can be concluded that ascorbic acid-sprayed plants can postpone the leaf senescence by peroxide/phenolic/ascorbate system which is involved in scavenging the ROS produced during leaf senescence.
Osmotic adjustment in wheat flag leaf in relation to flag leaf area and grain yield per plant
Farouk S.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2011,
Abstract: BackgroundSalinity stress causes ion toxicity and osmotic imbalances, leading to oxidative stress in plants. Antioxidants are considered ameliorators of saline stress and could develop salinity tolerance in crop plants. To ascertain the role of antioxidants in inducing osmotic adjustment in salt stressed wheat flag leaf in terms of compatible solutes accumulation, water relations parameters and osmotic adjustment as well as flag leaf area and grain yield per plant, in addition, flag leaf anatomy were examined.ResultsSalt stress up to 11.5 dSm-1 causes a significant reduction in water potential, osmotic potential, as well as relative water content, and water content. On the other hand, turgor potential and osmotic adjustment were significantly increased due to inducing increasing the higher accumulation of compatible osmolytes which leads to decreasing flag leaf area and grain yield per plant.Application of both antioxidants, in particular, ascorbic acid increased significantly flag leaf area, and grain yield per plant due to osmotic adjustment and maintaining leaf turgor potential as a consequence of increasing leaf water potential, water content and relative water content as compared to control plants. On the other hand, application of both antioxidants under all salinity levels, nullify the harmful effects of salinity on flag leaf area and grain yield per plant due to increasing osmolyte accumulation, maintaining turgor potential and osmotic adjustment.Anatomically, increasing salinity levels decreased thickness of leaf blade at midrib region, thickness of mesophyll tissue, tangential dimension of midrib vascular bundle, thickness of upper and lowerepidermis, thickness of big motor cell, and tangential dimension of big xylem vessel. Treatment with either ascorbic acid or tocopherol at 100 mg/L and their interactions with salinity increased all the above mentioned parameters in both nonsalinized and salinized plants. Ascorbic acid is the most effective in this concern.ConclusionIn conclusion, wheat plants responded to an increased ion influx in their cells by increasing the osmolytes synthesis and accumulation under salt stress, which further increased with antioxidants treatment and helped in maintaining the osmotic balance.
Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of chitosan under water stress
S Farouk, AR Amany
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Water stress impaired cowpea plant growth and decreased ion percentage and chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentration in the shoot as well as yield and its quality. Foliar-applied chitosan, in particular 250 mg/l, increased plant growth, yield and its quality as well as physiological constituents in plant shoot under stressed or nonstressed conditions as compared to untreated plants. Anatomically, water stress decreased thickness of leaf blade at midrib region, thickness of mesophyll tissue, thickness of midrib vascular bundle. Treatment with chitosan, in particular, 250 mg/l and their interactions with stress conditions increased all the above mentioned parameters in either non-stressed or stressed plants. It is suggested that the severity of cowpea plants damaged from water stress was reduced by 250 mg/l chitosan application.
Alleviation of oxidative stress induced by spider mite invasion through application of elicitors in bean plants
S Farouk, MA Osman
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Spider mite invasion induces oxidative stress on bean plants and increased soluble sugars, phenole, proline and peroxidase activity, but decreased catalase activity and ascorbic acid and carotenoid concentration. Application of elicitors significantly enhanced spider mite tolerance by decreasing hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, and increasing peroxidase activity and antioxidant compounds reported previously, leading to increasing ion percentage in plant shoot. This finding suggests that elicitors might be activating antioxygenic enzymes and elevating antioxidants there by controlling free radical generation, hence preventing membrane peroxidation and denaturation of biomolecules resulting into improving plant growth.
The effect of plant defense elicitors on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth and yield in absence or presence of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestation
Farouk S.,Osman M.A.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2011,
Abstract: BackgroundThe common bean plants "Phaseolus vulgaris L." is frequently attacked by the two spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae, causing a substantial decrease in bean plant growth and yield as well as leaflet structure. Therefore, for commercial bean cultivation in the field controlling TSSM infection is necessary. ResultsFoliar application of salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on common bean plants before or after two spotted spider mite infestation proved to be effective in reducing infestations. In most concentrations these elicitors significantly improved common bean plant growth i.e. had a positive effect on plant height, number of branches, shoot dry weight and leaf area per plant and bean yield. SA at 100 mg/l had the strongest positive effect. Moreover, application of elicitors significantly altered leaflet anatomical characters i.e. increased thickness of leaflet blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma as well as thickness of midrib region of the leaflet and changed the dimension of vascular bundles. Alternatively, TSSM infestation had the opposite effect on these leaflet anatomical characters.ConclusionWe conclude that SA or MeJA could be used for controlling TSSM infestation, to improve plant growth and to improve bean yield in the field.
Aberrant Vimentin Methylation Is Characteristic of Breast Cancer  [PDF]
F. I. Dwedar, G. I. Khalil, S. A. Nayer, A. Farouk
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2016.54018
Abstract: Background: Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are key regulators of gene activity and may play key roles in carcinogenesis through cumulative activation and inactivation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and other genes. Increased vimentin gene expression has been reported in various tumor cell lines and tissues including breast cancer. In addition, methylation of the vimentin gene was described as a marker in several malignant tumors. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the existence of a potential relationship between the methylation state of the vimentin gene and its prognostic value in breast cancer patients and its correlation with vimentin protein expression in the serum. Patients and Methods: The methylation status of the vimentin gene was examined in primary infiltrating ductaltumors and the surrounding normal tissues derived from 50 breast cancer patients enrolled for either modified radical mastectomy or conservative breast surgery using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP), serum vimentin levels were determined using ELISA, and the correlation between the methylation status and the clinicopathological findings was evaluated. Results: Out of 50 breast cancer patients, 18 (36%) exhibited positive methylation of vimentin gene while 32 (64%) exhibited negative vimentin genemethylation in their tumors. Subsequently clinicopathological data were correlated with the vimentin genemethylation score. A significant association was found between negative vimentin methylation, and both serum vimentin protein level (p <
Feasibility of Upfront Debulking Surgery versus Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Interval Debulking Surgery for Advanced Ovarian Cancer  [PDF]
Amen Hamdy Zaky, Adel Gabr, Doaa Wadie Maximous, Ahmed A. S. Salem, Amr Farouk Mourad, Haisam Atta, Marwa Ismail
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.92015
Abstract: Background: Inappropriately ovarian cancer cannot be detected until an advanced stage. Radical debulking surgery is considered the cornerstone in the management of advanced ovarian cancer pointing to complete tumor resolution. Unless optimal debulking cannot be achieved, these patients gain little benefit from surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been recommended as a novel therapeutic modality to a diversity of malignant tumors when the disease is not willing to optimal surgical resection at the time of diagnosis or the patient who unfit for aggressive debulking surgery. The purpose of this study is to compare survival in the patient with advanced ovarian cancer (stage III/IV) underwent primary debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (PDS-ACTR) to those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS). Results: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT-IDS) showed significant complete cytoreduction and decreased in surgical morbidity in comparison to primary debulking surgery (PDS-ACTR). NACT-IDS showed significant improvement in progression-free survival (P-value 0.002) and overall survival (P-value 0.03) in comparison to PDS-ACTR. Response to NACT and residual volume were the two independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusion: NACT-IDS for advanced ovarian cancer (III/IV) resulted in higher frequency of
Analysis of Petroleum System for Exploration and Risk Reduction in Abu Madi/Elqar'a Gas Field, Nile Delta, Egypt
Said Keshta,Farouk J. Metwalli,H. S. Al Arabi
International Journal of Geophysics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/187938
Abstract: Abu Madi/El Qar'a is a giant field located in the north eastern part of Nile Delta and is an important hydrocarbon province in Egypt, but the origin of hydrocarbons and their migration are not fully understood. In this paper, organic matter content, type, and maturity of source rocks have been evaluated and integrated with the results of basin modeling to improve our understanding of burial history and timing of hydrocarbon generation. Modeling of the empirical data of source rock suggests that the Abu Madi formation entered the oil in the middle to upper Miocene, while the Sidi Salem formation entered the oil window in the lower Miocene. Charge risks increase in the deeper basin megasequences in which migration hydrocarbons must traverse the basin updip. The migration pathways were principally lateral ramps and faults which enabled migration into the shallower middle to upper Miocene reservoirs. Basin modeling that incorporated an analysis of the petroleum system in the Abu Madi/El Qar'a field can help guide the next exploration phase, while oil exploration is now focused along post-late Miocene migration paths. These results suggest that deeper sections may have reservoirs charged with significant unrealized gas potential.
Exploitation of Biostimulatants and Vitamins as an Alternative Strategy to Control Early Blight of Tomato Plants
S. Farouk,Safaa A. Youssef,Abeer A. Ali
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Early blight of tomato is a fungal disease, caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Jones and Grout, is a major disease of Solanaceae. Therefore, for commercial cultivation in the field controlling early blight is necessary. The use of natural compounds as alternatives or complements to chemical fungicides would be helpful because the crops require continued prolonged harvesting, during which young unsprayed leaf tissue continuously become available for infestation. Several natural compounds were tested on tomato plants grown under field condition and natural infestation to evaluate the potential of biostimulants on improving tomato plant growth, yield and to induce protection from early blight disease. Foliar application of chitosan (Chit), humic acid (HA), seaweed extract (SE) and thiamine (Thi) proved to be effective in reducing early blight disease incidence in tomato plants. All tested biostimulants, in particular, thiamine significantly increased tomato growth parameters (shoot length, no. of branches and leaves per plant, shoot fresh and dry weight and leaf area per plant) and some physiological aspects (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and chlorophyll as well as total carbohydrate content) in the shoot. In addition, tomato yield/fed was also increased. Thi at 50 mg L-1 and SE at 500 mg L-1 were the most effective in this concern. Thi and SE could be recommended for controlling early blight disease of tomato in the field and improving its growth and yield.
Analysis of Petroleum System for Exploration and Risk Reduction in Abu Madi/Elqar'a Gas Field, Nile Delta, Egypt
Said Keshta,Farouk J. Metwalli,H. S. Al Arabi
International Journal of Geophysics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/187938
Abstract: Abu Madi/El Qar'a is a giant field located in the north eastern part of Nile Delta and is an important hydrocarbon province in Egypt, but the origin of hydrocarbons and their migration are not fully understood. In this paper, organic matter content, type, and maturity of source rocks have been evaluated and integrated with the results of basin modeling to improve our understanding of burial history and timing of hydrocarbon generation. Modeling of the empirical data of source rock suggests that the Abu Madi formation entered the oil in the middle to upper Miocene, while the Sidi Salem formation entered the oil window in the lower Miocene. Charge risks increase in the deeper basin megasequences in which migration hydrocarbons must traverse the basin updip. The migration pathways were principally lateral ramps and faults which enabled migration into the shallower middle to upper Miocene reservoirs. Basin modeling that incorporated an analysis of the petroleum system in the Abu Madi/El Qar'a field can help guide the next exploration phase, while oil exploration is now focused along post-late Miocene migration paths. These results suggest that deeper sections may have reservoirs charged with significant unrealized gas potential. 1. Introduction The Nile Delta basin contains a thick sequence of potential hydrocarbon source rocks that generate essentially gas and condensate. The Nile Delta is generally known as a natural gas-prone (essentially methane/gas condensate) region with production from Miocene and Pliocene fields. However, temperature and pressure data from these fields suggest that the Nile Delta basin should be oil rather than gas prone [1]. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate potential source rocks in north eastern part of Nile Delta from available geochemical data from two wells. An additional objective is to study the regional petroleum systems by using numerical models which provide information about burial and temperature history, maturation of source rocks and timing of expulsion of hydrocarbons. Maturity information was used for calibration of numerical models. Sharaf [2] showed from organic geochemical and petrographic analyses that the kerogen in the early Pliocene mudstones of the Kafr El-Sheikh formation and the Tortonian Wakar formation in the NE of the Nile Delta has poor capability to generate gas and minor oil. These formations are immature in all of the wells he studied. However, the early Miocene Qantara and the Middle Miocene Sidi Salem formations have a poor potential to generate gas and minor oil in the southern part of the
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