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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 931 matches for " Farhan Raza "
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Association between Asthma and Dental Caries amongst 12 - 15 Years Old Children: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza Khan, Nida Zahid, Masood Kadir
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2019.91010
Abstract: Objective: The study aimed to determine an association between dental caries and asthma among 12 to 15 years old children. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study conducted from January to February 2016. A random sample of 544 children aged 12 - 15 years were enrolled from five private schools of Karachi. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth). The main exposure variable was asthma and information on it was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Results: The data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazard algorithm. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Total 554 children, 306 (56.3%) boys and 43.7% girls participated in the study. Mean age of children was 13.2 ± 0.05 years. Total number of children with DMFT > 0 was 30.5%. The decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. Overall prevalence of asthma was 20%. Prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. Adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.6 - 1.3) after adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit; the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be in-significant. Conclusions: There was no association observed between asthma and dental caries among the children examined in this study.
Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report
Raza Farhan,Sultan Mubashar,Qamar Khola,Jawad Ali
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-331
Abstract: Introduction Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. Case presentation A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL) with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours). Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake. Conclusion Diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome is usually made incidentally during adolescence or early adulthood based on clinical and biochemical findings. We report that Gitelman syndrome can present during the early childhood years. If undiagnosed and untreated, it can lead to growth retardation and delayed puberty.
Clinical significance of troponin elevations in acute decompensated diabetes without clinical acute coronary syndrome
Anthony Eubanks, Farhan Raza, Mohamad Alkhouli, April N Glenn, Carol Homko, Abul Kashem, Alfred Bove
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-154
Abstract: We performed a retrospective analysis of 872 patients admitted to Temple University Hospital from 2004–2009 with DKA or HHS. Patients were included if they had cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measured within 24 hours of hospital admission, had no evidence of acute coronary syndrome and had a follow up period of at least 18 months. Of the 264 patients who met the criteria, we reviewed the baseline patient characteristics, admission labs, EKGs and major adverse cardiovascular events during the follow up period. Patients were categorized into two groups with normal and elevated levels of cardiac enzymes. The composite end point of the study was the occurrence of a major cardiovascular event (MACE) during the follow up period and was compared between the two groups.Of 264 patients, 24 patients were found to have elevated cTnI. Compared to patients with normal cardiac enzymes, there was a significant increase in incidence of MACE in patients with elevated cTnI. In a regression analysis, which included prior history of CAD, HTN and ESRD, the only variable that independently predicted MACE was an elevation in cTnI (p?=?0.044). Patients with elevated CK-MB had increased lengths of hospitalization compared to the other group (p?<?0.001).Elevated cardiac troponin I in patients admitted with decompensated diabetes and without evidence of acute coronary syndrome, strongly correlate with a later major cardiovascular event. Thus, elevated troponin I during metabolic abnormalities identify a group of patients at an increased risk for poor long-term outcomes. Whether these patients may benefit from early detection, risk stratification and preventive interventions remains to be investigated.Elevated cardiac biomarkers in decompensated diabetes in the absence of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been described in several case reports [1-5]. While non-ACS related cardiac biomarkers have been studied in various acute and chronic medical conditions, acute decompensated diabetes has receiv
Elevated Cardiac Troponin in Acute Stroke without Acute Coronary Syndrome Predicts Long-Term Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes
Farhan Raza,Mohamad Alkhouli,Paul Sandhu,Reema Bhatt,Alfred A. Bove
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/621650
Abstract: Background. Elevated cardiac troponin in acute stroke in absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has unclear long-term outcomes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 566 patients admitted to Temple University Hospital from 2008 to 2010 for acute stroke was performed. Patients were included if cardiac troponin I was measured and had no evidence of ACS and an echocardiogram was performed. Of 200 patients who met the criteria, baseline characteristics, electrocardiograms, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were reviewed. Patients were characterized into two groups with normal and elevated troponins. Primary end point was nonfatal myocardial infarction during follow-up period after discharge. The secondary end points were MACE and death from any cause. Results. For 200 patients, 17 patients had positive troponins. Baseline characteristics were as follows: age , 64% African Americans, 78% with hypertension, and 22% with previous CVA. During mean follow-up of 20.1 months, 7 patients (41.2%) in elevated troponin and 6 (3.3%) patients in normal troponin group had nonfatal myocardial infarction (). MACE (41.2% versus 14.2%, ) and death from any cause (41.2% versus 14.5%, ) were significant in the positive troponin group. Conclusions. Elevated cardiac troponin in patients with acute stroke and no evidence of ACS is strong predictor of long-term cardiac outcomes. 1. Background The relationship between acute stroke and coronary artery disease is complex, and they are related to each other in multiple ways. Acute stroke confers a significant increase in adverse cardiac outcomes during short- and long-term follow-up [1]. A subset of patients with stroke might be at higher risk of long-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Identifying these patients, ideally with a simple test or biomarker, can help to reduce their long-term risk of adverse events. Troponin is a highly sensitive and specific marker for myocardial necrosis that is used in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, troponin elevation has been documented in multiple clinical settings in the absence of ACS [2, 3]. Increase in troponin has been documented in all types of stroke including ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage [4]. In a meta-analysis of 15 studies involving 2,901 patients, elevated troponins were documented in 18.1% patients with stroke that included patients with EKG changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia [3]. Troponin elevation has also been documented in acute stroke without any evidence of acute coronary syndrome [5]. While some
Morphometric Assessment of Wadi Wala Watershed, Southern Jordan Using ASTER (DEM) and GIS  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.92011
Abstract: Morphometric analysis is of vital concern to understand hydromophological processes in a given watershed, and thus, it is a priority for assessing water resources in drainage basins. A morphometric analysis was conducted to identify the drainage properties of Wadi Wala and the 23 fourth-order sub-basins. ASTER DEM data was employed to compile slope, elevation, and aspect maps. Arc GIS software was used to measure and calculate basic, derived and shape morphometric parameters. W. Wala is found to be a sixth-order drainage basin, and the drainage pattern is trellis to sub-trellis in the central and lower part of the catchment, whereas it is dendritic to sub-dendritic pattern in the southern and northern parts. The slopes of the catchment vary from 0° - 5° to >35° in slope categories. Tectonic uplifting and tilting, lithology, structure and rejuvenation are the major factors controlling morphological variation over the watershed. The recognized fault systems are chiefly controlling the drainage pattern, and the elongated shape of the sub-basins is attributed to dense lineaments in the central and eastern parts of the watershed. The Rb values for the entire catchment and the sub-catchments range from 2 to 7, with a mean of 4.55, which indicates the distortion of drainage pattern by geological structure. Hypsometric integral values are high for the W. Wala watershed and the sub-basins, where it ranges from 70% to 89%. High HI values indicate that drainage basins are at the youth-age stage of geomorphic development, and they are affected by tectonic uplifting, tilting, and the dominance of hillslope process. Variation in HI values is apparent between sub-basins located at the western part, or, the rejuvenated belt where HI values range from 85% to 89%. Whereas the HI values of the sub-basins located at the eastern part of the watershed, vary from 70% to 84%. Regression analysis reveals that R2 values, which represent the degree of control of driving parameters on HI are reasonably high for the height of local base level (m) and the mean height of sub-basins (m). Both parameters contribute 0.42 and 0.39 respectively (where the F-value is significant at 0.1% and 0.5% levels). Such results imply that the height of local base level (m), and the mean height (m) are the only morphometric driving parameters which have significant control on HI values in the W. Wala watershed. High annual soil loss and sediment load estimated recently, denote that the catchment is highly susceptible to surface erosion at present. Hence, the present study, and
Study of Timing Synchronization in MIMO-OFDM Systems Using DVB-T
Farhan Farhan
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.5121/ijit.2014.3201
Abstract: OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)provides the promising physical layer for 4G and 3GPP LTE Systems in terms of efficient use of bandwidth and data rates. This paper highlights the implementation of OFDM in Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T). It mainly focuses on the timing offset problem present in OFDM systems and its proposed solution using Cyclic Prefix (CP) as a modified SC (Schmidl and COX) algorithm. It also highlights the timing synchronization as well as performance comparison through bit error rate. Synchronization issues in OFDM are important and can lead to information loss if not properly addressed. Simulations were performed to implement DVB-T system and to compare different synchronization methods under certain distribution model.
Spatial Estimation of Soil Erosion Risk Using RUSLE Approach, RS, and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Kufranja Watershed, Northern Jordan  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Dalal Zregat, Ibrahim Farhan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512134

Wadi Kufranja catchment (126.3 km2), northern Jordan, was selected to estimate annual soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), remote sensing (RS), and geographic information system (GIS). RUSLE factors (R, K, LS, C and P) were computed and presented by raster layers in a GIS environment, then multiplied together to predict soil erosion rates, and to generate soil erosion risk categories and soil erosion severity maps. The estimated potential average annual soil loss is 10 ton·ha-1·year-1 for the catchment, and the potential erosion rates from recognized erosion classes ranged from 0.0 to 1850 ton·ha-1·year

Advances in MIMO Techniques for Mobile Communications—A Survey  [PDF]
Farhan Khalid, Joachim Speidel
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.33031
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive overview of critical developments in the field of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. The state of the art in single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) and multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) communications is presented, highlighting the key aspects of these technologies. Both open-loop and closed-loop SU-MIMO systems are discussed in this paper with particular emphasis on the data rate maximization aspect of MIMO. A detailed review of various MU-MIMO uplink and downlink techniques then follows, clarifying the underlying concepts and emphasizing the importance of MU-MIMO in cellular communication systems. This paper also touches upon the topic of MU-MIMO capacity as well as the promising convex optimization approaches to MIMO system design.
A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for Prioritization of Wadi Shueib Mini-Watersheds (Central Jordan) Based on Morphometric and Soil Erosion Susceptibility Analysis  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Omar Anaba
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.81001
Abstract: Recently watershed prioritization has become a pragmatic approach for watershed management and natural resources development. Wadi Shueib is a Jordan Rift valley and covers an area of 177.8 km2. The upper catchment is of dry Mediterranean climate, whereas the lower part is arid. The drainage network is sub-dendritic pattern, with a trellis pattern developed due to the influence of W. Shueib structure. Fourteen mini-watersheds were delineated and designated as (MW 1 to MW 14) for prioritization purposes. Morphometric analysis, and soil erosion susceptibility analysis were conducted, and their values were calculated for each mini-watersheds. Based on value/relationship with erodibility, different prioritization ranks were ascribed following the computation of compound factors. Based on morphometric and soil erosion susceptibility analysis, and the resultant ranks, the mini-watersheds have been classified into four categories in relation to their priority for soil conservation measures: very high, high, moderate, and low. It is found that 64.3% of the 3rdorder mini-watersheds are classified in the categories of very high and high priority. Based on soil erosion susceptibility analysis, three mini-watersheds are of very high priority and three are of high priority. The integration of morphometric and soil erosion susceptibility methods shows that mini-watersheds no.2 and no.3 are common mini-watersheds, and can be classified in the class of moderate and low priority respectively. By contrast, two mini-watersheds (no.8 and no.13) are categorized in the class of high priority based on morphometric analysis, and are classified in the category of very high priority based on soil erosion susceptibility analysis. Similarly, mini-watershed no.14 can be placed in the category of very high priority based on morphometric analysis, and ranks in the category of high priority based on soil erosion susceptibility analysis. With reference to the integration of the two methods of prioritization, it can be concluded that most of the mini-watersheds can be categorized in the classes moderate, high, and very high priority. Consequently, the entire W. Shueib watershed must be prioritized for soil and water conservation to ensure
Flash Flood Risk Estimation of Wadi Yutum (Southern Jordan) Watershed Using GIS Based Morphometric Analysis and Remote Sensing Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Omar Anaba
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2016.62008
Abstract: Flash flood disasters associated with heavy rainstorms are common in dry lands of Jordan. This causes inestimable damage to life and infrastructure. In the present investigation, flash floods were assessed in Wadi Yutum watershed, southern Jordan. Assessment was conducted using remote sensing and GIS techniques, combined with geological and geomorphic field data to evaluate the probability of flooding risk spatially. Two methods were used to assess the flooding risk for seventeen sub-basins of W. Yutum: the morphometric ranking method; and El-Shamy’s approach. Both methods utilized twenty morphometric parameters of paramount interest for flash flood risk estimation. The results achieved based on the two methods enabled identification of sub-basins with a high potential of flash flooding, and served to reveal the common sub-basins falling under each category of flooding risk. Morphometric analysis and GIS were employed to produce flood hazard maps which displayed sub-basins exposed to harmful flooding in Wadi Yutum. The adopted methodology can be applied to estimate flooding risk in other comparable watersheds and region in Jordan. Further, preparedness measures can be proposed in a timely manner in order to minimize destructive flood effects.
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