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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1712 matches for " Farhan Rashid "
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Appraisal of Urban Heat Island and Its Impacts on Environment Using Landsat TM in Peshawar, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rashid Mehmood, Muhammad Atif Butt, Syed Amer Mahmood, Farhan Ali
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2017.63014
Abstract:
Last couple of decades witnessed a rapid escalation in urban temperature of Peshawar city and its neighboring localities. This alarming condition gave birth to climatic term Urban Heat Island (UHI) created drastic alteration in surface temperatures. In this study, thermal infrared remote sensing data has been employed to map out and monitor such micro-climatic variation in temperatures in land use/land cover exposed surface to the environment. To assess these outcomes resulting from human activities, Landsat TM data band 6 was subjected through ERDAS Imagine 2013. For further processing, ARC GIS helped a lot in making maps to pinpoint the heat island in and around the city. Moreover, a relationship of land surface temperature with urban sprawl, environmental and industrialization was established. This study has shown a substantial upsurge in temperature about 1 to 3 degrees. Urban sprawl and industrialization at the edges are accounting for these conditions. Urban and industrial data has also reinforced the fact being drawn from remotely sensed data. Hence, evaluation of Land surface temperature data captured through remote satellite has proven to be effective tool not only for monitoring and analyzing temperature but also for assessing its adverse impacts on the environment and climate.
A review on gastric diverticulum
Farhan Rashid, Ahmed Aber, Syed Y Iftikhar
World Journal of Emergency Surgery , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1749-7922-7-1
Abstract: Gastric diverticulum (GD) is an outpouching of the gastric wall. GDs are rare and they are commonly detected incidentally during routine diagnostic testing. Prevalence ranges from 0.04% in contrast study radiographs and 0.01% - 0. 11% at oesophagogastrodeudenum (OGD) [1,2]. The incidence of gastric diverticulum is equally distributed between males and females and typically may present in the fifth and sixth decades. However it is worth mentioning that it may present in patients as young as 9 years old [3].The lack of exact pathogonomic symptoms and the vague long history of presenting complaints that can range from dyspepsia to major upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed make this condition a diagnostic challenge.We conducted a literature search using the "Pubmed" search engine. The following terms "gastric diverticulum" and "Stomach diverticulum" were used to identify the appropriate papers.In this review, our emphasis is to highlight on the presentation, the pathophysiology, investigations and different management options for this condition.Symptoms of GD vary and can imitate those of other common disorders. It is important to note that most GD are asymptomatic but may present with a vague sensation of fullness or discomfort in the upper abdomen. Presenting complaint might also be the result of a major complication of GD. This includes acute upper gastrointestinal bleed or perforation [1,2] (Table 1).GD in general is a rare condition; It is found in 0.02% (6/29 900) of autopsy studies and in 0.04% (165/380 000) of upper gastrointestional studies [1,3,4]. Meeroff et al reported a prevalence of 0.1-2.6% in an autopsy series [4].Seventy-five percent of true gastric diverticula were located in the posterior wall of the fundus of the stomach, 2 cm below the oesophagastric junction and 3 cm from the lesser curve. False diverticula were either traction or pulsion and associated with inflammation, other diseases, or both. Diverticula were usually less than 4 cm in size (range
Proximate Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Heliotropium crispum
Samia Rashid,Muhammad Farhan Qureshi,Mohammad Ashraf
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: In the present studies, the biochemical analysis of Heliotropium crispum has been carried out and antibacterial activity of some of its extracts has been determined. Biochemical studies reveal that carbohydrates are present (on dry weight basis) in 2g per cent (1.2% reducing and 0.8% non-reducing sugars) and nitrogen contents are 1.14 per cent. Among minerals (ppm), Na (250), K (380), Ca (207), Mg (871), Cu (14.19), Zn (0.66), Mn (8.27) and Fe (3.81) was determined. Ethanolic, ether and aqueous plant extracts did not show antibacterial activity.
Influence of Seedling Age and Nitrogen Rates on Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.): A Review  [PDF]
Muhammad Mahran Aslam, Muhammad Zeeshan, Ayesha Irum, Muhammad Umair Hassan, Saif Ali, Rashid Hussain, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Muhammad Farhan Rashid
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69135
Abstract: Rice is an important crop and the food security of the world is strongly associated with it as it is the staple food of half of the world’s population. Among various agro-management practices seedling age and nitrogen rates significantly affected its growth, development and yield components. Rice cultivars performed differently when transplanted in field at varying seedling ages depending upon their genetic makeup and adoptability to certain environmental conditions. Seedling age plays an important role in yield contributing parameters like number of productive tillers, panicle length, filled grains panicle-1 and 1000-kernel weight leading to higher paddy yield in different rice cultivars and hybrids. Nitrogen is required in huge quantity in rice production as it is an important constituent of plant parts and processes. Paddy yield increases significantly with the increase in nitrogen rate but after a certain limit yield starts decreasing. Keeping in view the significance of seedling age and nitrogen rates in different rice cultivars and hybrids, an effort has been made to review some research work already conducted and will be helpful to the researchers and scientists to plan future strategies.
Acute mesenteric ischemia and duodenal ulcer perforation: a unique double pathology
Lois Haruna, Ahmed Aber, Farhan Rashid, Marco Barreca
BMC Surgery , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2482-12-21
Abstract: We report a unique case of a 53 year old Italian lady who presented with acute mesenteric ischaemia and duodenal perforation. This is the first report of massive bowel ischaemia and duodenal perforation with no apparent underlying common pathophysiology leading to this presentation.Early management in the intensive care unit and appropriate surgical intervention maximised the patient’s chances of survival despite the poor prognosis associated with her dual pathology. The rare pathology of the patient described can be explained by two possible hypotheses: peptic ulcer disease causing duodenal ulceration, which precipitated ischaemic infarction of the small bowel. The second hypothesis is the patient developed a stress related ulcer following ischaemic bowel infarction secondary to arterial thrombosis.Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) comprises a group of pathophysiologic processes that have a common end point—bowel necrosis. The survival rate has not improved substantially during the past 70 years, and the major reason is the continued difficulty in recognizing the condition before bowel infarction occurs [1,2].Clinical presentation is nonspecific in most cases and can be characterized by an initial discrepancy between severe abdominal pain and minimal clinical findings. In general, patients with AMI have an acute onset of symptoms and a rapid deterioration in their clinical condition. Complications such as ileus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding may also mask the initial signs and symptoms of AMI [2].Acute mesenteric ischemia can be categorized into 4 specific types based on its cause. The most frequent cause is arterial emboli. They are responsible for approximately 40% to 50% of cases [1,3]. Most mesenteric emboli originate from a cardiac source. The second most common cause is acute mesenteric thrombosis accounts for 25% to 30% of all ischemic events [4,5]. Most of the reported cases of mesenteric ischemia due to arterial thrombosis occur wi
Accidental finding of a toothpick in the porta hepatis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report
Waleed Al-Khyatt, Farhan Rashid, Syed Y Iftikhar
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-421
Abstract: In the current report, we describe the case of a 37-year-old Caucasian woman with an incidental finding of a toothpick in the porta hepatis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gall stones.Toothpick ingestion is not an uncommon event and can predispose patients to serious complications. In this particular case, the toothpick was only discovered at the time of unrelated surgery. Therefore, it was important during surgery to exclude any related or missed injury to the adjacent structures by this sharp object.Unintentional ingestion of a toothpick is not an uncommon event. Often the ingested toothpicks spontaneously pass through the gut without sequelae [1]. However, serious complications can happen when these sharp objects migrate through the gastrointestinal wall [2]. Patients with ingested toothpicks in the gastrointestinal tract typically have no recollection of the event. Symptoms related to toothpick ingestion are often variable and non-specific [3,4]. In the current report, we describe the case of a 37-year-old Caucasian woman with an incidental finding of a toothpick in the porta hepatis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gall stones.A 37-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with recurrent attacks of upper abdominal pain over a six-month period. Otherwise, she was fit and well with no significant medical history. The results of general and abdominal examinations were normal. Results from her initial blood tests showed deranged liver function of the obstructive type. An abdominal ultrasound scan revealed a thickened gall bladder wall containing multiple gall stones. A magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) study showed multiple gall stones; however, there was no choledocholithiasis. Our patient underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and on-table cholangiogram (OTC) for symptomatic gall stones. The procedure was performed with a standard Veress needle using the pneumoperitoneum technique, with fou
Atypical right diaphragmatic hernia (hernia of Morgagni), spigelian hernia and epigastric hernia in a patient with Williams syndrome: a case report
Farhan Rashid, Ramakrishna Chaparala, Javed Ahmed, Syed Y Iftikhar
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-3-7
Abstract: This 49-year-old woman with Williams syndrome, cognitive impairment and aortic stenosis presented to physicians with right-sided chest pain. She had previously undergone repair of her right spigelian and epigastric hernia. Her abdominal examination was unremarkable. Chest X-ray suggested right-sided diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusion for which she received treatment. The computed tomography scan showed a diaphragmatic hernia with some collapse/consolidation of the adjacent lung. Furthermore, the patient had aortic stenosis and was high risk for anaesthesia (ASA grade 3). She underwent successful laparoscopic repair of her congenital diaphragmatic hernia leading to a quick and uneventful postoperative recovery.These multiple hernias suggest that patients with Williams syndrome may have some connective tissue disorder which makes them prone to develop hernias especially associated with those parts of the body which may have intracavity pressure variations like the abdomen. Diaphragmatic hernia may be the cause of chest pain in these patients. A computed tomography scan helps in early diagnosis, and laparoscopic repair helps in prevention of further complications, and leads to quick recovery especially in patients with learning disabilities. In the presence of significant comorbidities, a less invasive operative procedure with quick recovery becomes advisable.Congenital diaphragmatic abnormalities occur in 1/2000 to 1/4000 births [1]. The most common defect is congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Morgagni's hernia is a rare cause of diaphragmatic hernia. It is usually described as an anterior diaphragmatic defect occurring on the right side and located in the anterior mediastinum because of the retrosternal location of the foramen of Morgagni [2]. These hernias are usually diagnosed incidentally when the patient has reached adulthood, or when they become symptomatic due to intestinal involvement (occlusive symptoms) or when they present with respiratory distress [3]
A review on delayed presentation of diaphragmatic rupture
Farhan Rashid, Mallicka M Chakrabarty, Rajeev Singh, Syed Y Iftikhar
World Journal of Emergency Surgery , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1749-7922-4-32
Abstract: A Pubmed search was conducted using the terms "delayed presentation of post traumatic diaphragmatic rupture" and "delayed diaphragmatic rupture". Although quite a few articles were cited, the details of presentation, investigations and treatment discussed in each of these were not identical, accounting for the variation in the data presented below.Late presentation of diaphragmatic rupture is often a result of herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax[1]. Sudden increase in the intra abdominal pressure may cause a diaphragmatic tear and visceral herniation[2]. The incidence of diaphragmatic ruptures after thoraco-abdominal traumas is 0.8–5% [3] and up to 30% diaphragmatic hernias present late[4]. Diaphragmatic, lumbar and extra-thoracic hernias are well described complications of blunt trauma [5]. Incorrect interpretation of the x ray or only intermittent hernial symptoms are frequent reasons for incorrect diagnosis[6].Diaphragmatic rupture with abdominal organ herniation was first described by Sennertus in 1541[7,8]. Diaphragmatic injury is a recognised consequence of high velocity blunt and penetrating trauma to the abdomen and chest rather than from a trivial fall[8]. These patients usually have multi system injuries because of the large force required to rupture the diaphragm[9].Blunt trauma to the abdomen increases the transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient between the abdominal compartment and the thorax[10]. This causes shearing of a stretched membrane and avulsion of the diaphragm from its points of attachments due to sudden increase in intra abdominal pressure, transmitted through the viscera[11]. Delay in presentation of a diaphragmatic hernia could be explained by various different hypotheses. Delayed rupture of a devitalised diaphragmatic muscle may occur several days after the initial injury [8]. This is best exemplified in the case report of bilateral diaphragmatic rupture [12], where the left diaphragmatic rupture was identified 24 hours after th
Probing the link between oestrogen receptors and oesophageal cancer
Farhan Rashid, Raheela N Khan, Syed Y Iftikhar
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-8-9
Abstract: We performed a comprehensive literature search and analysed the results regarding ER expression in oesophageal tumours with special emphasis on expression of different oestrogen receptors and the role of sex hormones in oesophageal cancer. This article also focuses on the significance of the two main ER subtypes and mechanisms underlying the presumed male predominance of this disease.We postulate that differential oestrogen receptor status may be considered a biomarker of poor clinical outcome based on tissue dedifferentiation or advanced stage of the disease. Further, if we can establish the importance of oestrogen and its receptors in the context of oesophageal cancer, then this may lead to a new future direction in the management of this malignancy.Human oesophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common type of malignancy in the world [1], with approximately half a million people diagnosed annually worldwide [2]. Over the last three decades, the incidence of oesophageal cancer in many parts of the world has risen significantly [3-7]. The prevalence of the two main histological subtypes of oesophageal cancer, adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) varies depending upon geographical location [8]. The AC is common in Europe and Australia [9] followed by the USA [8,9], while SCC predominates in Asian countries especially in the far East[10]. The incidence of oesophageal AC in the western world has risen rapidly over several years [11-13] whilst that of SCC has decreased[8], although increasing trends have been observed in Denmark and the Netherlands among men [14]. Carcinogens including dioxins, nitrosamines and polycyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco, processed meats and fried foods along with alcohol consumption and gastrooesophageal reflux disease and others have all been identified as risk factors for oesophageal cancer[15] although contribution of aetiological factors varies amongst histological subtypes of the disease. Figures 1 and 2
Morphometric Assessment of Wadi Wala Watershed, Southern Jordan Using ASTER (DEM) and GIS  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.92011
Abstract: Morphometric analysis is of vital concern to understand hydromophological processes in a given watershed, and thus, it is a priority for assessing water resources in drainage basins. A morphometric analysis was conducted to identify the drainage properties of Wadi Wala and the 23 fourth-order sub-basins. ASTER DEM data was employed to compile slope, elevation, and aspect maps. Arc GIS software was used to measure and calculate basic, derived and shape morphometric parameters. W. Wala is found to be a sixth-order drainage basin, and the drainage pattern is trellis to sub-trellis in the central and lower part of the catchment, whereas it is dendritic to sub-dendritic pattern in the southern and northern parts. The slopes of the catchment vary from 0° - 5° to >35° in slope categories. Tectonic uplifting and tilting, lithology, structure and rejuvenation are the major factors controlling morphological variation over the watershed. The recognized fault systems are chiefly controlling the drainage pattern, and the elongated shape of the sub-basins is attributed to dense lineaments in the central and eastern parts of the watershed. The Rb values for the entire catchment and the sub-catchments range from 2 to 7, with a mean of 4.55, which indicates the distortion of drainage pattern by geological structure. Hypsometric integral values are high for the W. Wala watershed and the sub-basins, where it ranges from 70% to 89%. High HI values indicate that drainage basins are at the youth-age stage of geomorphic development, and they are affected by tectonic uplifting, tilting, and the dominance of hillslope process. Variation in HI values is apparent between sub-basins located at the western part, or, the rejuvenated belt where HI values range from 85% to 89%. Whereas the HI values of the sub-basins located at the eastern part of the watershed, vary from 70% to 84%. Regression analysis reveals that R2 values, which represent the degree of control of driving parameters on HI are reasonably high for the height of local base level (m) and the mean height of sub-basins (m). Both parameters contribute 0.42 and 0.39 respectively (where the F-value is significant at 0.1% and 0.5% levels). Such results imply that the height of local base level (m), and the mean height (m) are the only morphometric driving parameters which have significant control on HI values in the W. Wala watershed. High annual soil loss and sediment load estimated recently, denote that the catchment is highly susceptible to surface erosion at present. Hence, the present study, and
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