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The Comparison of Antagonistic Effects of Normal Vaginal Lactobacilli and Some Commonly used Antibiotics on Isolated Bacteria of Uterine Infections in Dairy Cows
Pouya Dini,Ourang Ataie Amarloie,Mehran Farhoodi Moghadam,Farhad Moosakhani
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Uterine infections are one of the major reproductive complications during postpartum. The antibiotics and antiseptic agents used in the treatment of postpartum infections have residues in food, induce bacterial resistance, increase the financial costs and cause failure in defense mechanism of host. On the other hand, nowadays the administration of probiotics is considered as an alternative method for the prevention and treatment of infections. Therefore, preventive treatment with probiotic product could decrease the usage of antibiotic and bring advantages in dairy farm systems. The objective of this study was screening of the antagonistic properties of isolated vaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against the most prevalent bacteria in uterine infections in order to investigate their probiotic potentials as an alternative approach for prevention of uterine infections. LAB were isolated from sampling of cranial part of vagina during estrus phase and luteal phase of Holstein dairy cattle and pathogens bacteria were isolated from merits and endometritis specimens which referred to our veterinary laboratory. The antagonistic activity of isolated LAB against uterine pathogens was tested by Agar spot test. Antibiotic susceptibilities of pathogenic strains to commonly used antibiotics were investigated by using disc diffusion method. Inhibition zones around both the probiotic spots and the antibiotic discs were classified to weak, moderate and strong categories and their antagonistic efficacies were compared. Isolated LAB had antagonistic effects against all the pathogenic strains including both gram negative and gram positive, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were the most sensitive bacteria (with 12.60 and 14 mm an average inhibition zone, respectively). LAB had the least antagonistic effects on Clostridium perfringens (3.6 mm of an average inhibition zone). Comparing the antagonistic efficacies, the percentages of overall susceptibility to the used probiotic and antibiotics (75 versus 49.7%, respectively) differ significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion, bovine vaginal lactic acid bacteria have different antagonistic characters against isolated pathogens and obtained inhibition zones vary from 0 to 18 mm. Regarding the findings of this study, Lactobacillus spp might be more efficient than or at least as much efficient as those of antibiotics in production of antagonistic effects against uterine infection pathogens. These results might be applied in future studies to design probiotic products to prevent uterine infections in postpartum dairy co
Minerals profile of forages for grazing ruminants in Pakistan  [PDF]
Farhad Mirzaei
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.23019
Abstract: The current research was carried out at Rakh Khaire Wala, which is well known as one of the most developed animal husbandry in Punjab, Pakistan. This location in the arid region, where sheep farming is a common practice, was selected for this study. The aim of the study was to determine and collect data on the mineral contents of forages or feedstuffs that are harvested and used in animal nutrition in the region, in order to gain information on the deficiency and/or excess of mineral levels for ruminants grazing therein, fed mainly with these feedstuffs. These pastures were visited twice during the study, in summer and winter, to collect samples in order to determine the effect of seasonal changes on the mineral contents of forages. In each location, samples from the available forages were collected. Forage samples were analyzed in order to determine the Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn levels using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These results show that pasture grasses/forages had sufficient levels of K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn to meet requirements of ruminant animals, but the occurrence of marginal to deficient supplies of Na, and Cu appear very likely. There is an urgent requirement for experimentation on supplementation regimes involving these minerals, so that appropriate recommendations can be formulated.
Detection of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Milk and fecal Samples in Dairy Cattle by PCR and Nested-PCR
M. Tohidi Moghadam,S. Sarv,F. Moosakhani,A. Badiie
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.3055.3061
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne s disease in cattle. The disease causes diarrhea, reduced milk production, poor reproductively, infertility and emaciation. MAP was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering from Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In this study, milk and fecal samples were collected from cows (n = 150) with suspected of Johne s status. Milk and fecal samples were processed for Nested PCR. Nested PCR detected positive samples in milk and feces 68.150 (45.3%) and 74.150 (49.3%), respectively and PCR detected positive samples in milk and feces 41.150 (27.3%) and 48.150 (32%), respectively.
Wool characteristics of crossbred Baghdadi wild ram and Iran native sheep  [PDF]
Nosratollah Taherpour, Farhad Mirzaei
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32021
Abstract: Twenty mid side wool samples of crossbred sheep were collected and their characteristics were determined. Data analyzed by SAS software and Duncan’s multiple range tests was used for comparison of mean wool characteristics. Average fleece weight, yield, wool diameter, Fine fiber and staple length were: 431.59 ± 38.95 gr, 65.14%, 14.24 ± 0.67 μm, 48.67 ± 5.59, and 43.65 ± 4.15 mm respectively. Mean fleece weight was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by sex (female 259 gr and male 506.55) and age (248.25, 458.38 and 637.75 gr for 1, 2 and 3 yr old respectively). Mean wool diameter was significantly affected by sex (male 12.78 ± 0.49, female 15.33 ± 0.85 μm) and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between F1 and F2 generation 11.84 ± 0.58, 16.27 ± 0.72 μm respectively. There were effective differences among ages (12.55 ± 0.74, 14.47 ± 0.58 and 13.11 ± 0.64 μm for 1, 2 and 3 yr old respectively). Wool diameter of younger animals, males and F1 was so fine (12.55, 12.87 and 11.84 μm respectively). Staple length of F2 crosses was significantly longer than F1 crosses (p < 0.05). However wool diameter of F1 was significantly finer than F2, but length and down fiber percentage was less than second generation. As wild sheep shed his fiber in winter, the first filial crosses also shed their fibers from the end of winter to early spring. Shedding was seldom observed in F2 generations. It seems likely that wool from crossbred sheep could be used for those applications for which cashmere is suitable. This study indicates that, such crossbred sheep have a superfine wool and could be used in pure or blend for textile industry.
Efficient Components on Livestock Products Export in Iran  [PDF]
Behnam Maleki, Farhad Mirzaei
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.38117
Abstract: Iran’s dependence on oil revenues has caused severe impact of commodity price fluctuations on the currency revenues and any reduction in export prices has led into a deficit in the country’s balance of payments. Accordingly, it was in the past years and especially the Second Development Plan that government included encouragement and reducing the country’s dependence on oil revenues in its agenda. The international agricultural exports, especially exports of live-stock and poultry country subdivision have a proper status due to its relative advantage. Therefore, in this study factors affecting the supply of exportable animal products are considered. For this purpose, factors affecting exports of live-stock products are studied by using Cointegration Analysis based on statistical intervals in 1984-2008. Experimental results showed that the value of income per capita importer countries of Iran and the real exchange rate had a positive effect on export demand and the added value and export price index had a negative impact on exports of livestock sector.
Designing a Full Adder Circuit Based on Quasi-Floating Gate  [PDF]
Sahar Bonakdarpour, Farhad Razaghian
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.53B012

Since in designing the full adder circuits, full adders have been generally taken into account, so as in this paper it has been attempted to represent a full adder cell with a significant efficiency of power, speed and leakage current levels. For this objective, a comparison between five full adder circuits has been provided. Applying floating gate technology and refresh circuits in the full adder cell lead to the reduction of leakage current on the gate node. The simulations were accomplished in this paper, through HSPICE software and 65 nm CMOS technology. The simulation results indicate the considerable efficiency of power consumption, speed and leakage current in the full adder cell rather than other cells.

An Overview of the Copyright Protection Laws in Bangladesh—A Critical Analysis of the Copyright Act, 2000 with Its Loopholes and Recommendations  [PDF]
Muhammad Farhad Hosen
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.82011
Abstract: Nowadays, it goes without saying copyright is one of the most significant field of Intellectual Property related to the exclusive monopoly rights in the arena of literature, dramatics, musical, artistic, cinematograph and sound recordings. Day by day the importance of copyright is increasing whereas the lacking of necessary measures to protect copyrights are going to be difficult because of our lack of enforcing mechanisms and insufficient laws and plagiarizing activities although we have Copyright Act 2000. To protect the rights and privileges of the author or the creator of Copyright works, footsteps and different measures of the Government should be increased and piracy must be stopped by establishing strong enforcement agency. To protect the copyrights of the creator especially of the author, the govt. should come forward to enforce the rules and regulations which have been incorporated in the Act of 2000 and some amendments are also required to enforce. By this research, the researcher tries to pick out the copyright status of Bangladesh, an overview of the Copyright Act 2000, and the common barriers and solutions of those barriers related to the copyright position in Bangladesh.
Coordination within International Manufacturing Networks: A Comparative Study of Three Industrial Practices  [PDF]
Farhad Norouzilame, Magnus Wiktorsson
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.86107
Abstract: The globalisation of manufacturing activities has led to the emergence of internationally dispersed manufacturing plants. Coordination of such networks is a complex task and entails several management challenges. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding regarding the coordination issues and how they could be managed in IMN environment. Using a multiple case study approach, data from three multi-plant manufacturing businesses were collected and analysed. The results include discussions on coordination aspects such as autonomy and mechanisms to conduct coordination. Furthermore, a model for assigning autonomy level to the plant in an IMN is suggested as well as mechanisms to conduct the coordination work.
Study of the EMC Effect for 27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu, and 107Ag Nuclei  [PDF]
Negin Sattary Nikkhoo, Farhad Zolfagharpour
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.311228
Abstract: In this paper the EMC effect for 27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu, and 107Ag nuclei are investigated with oscillator model. In this model has been assumed that nucleons in each level are affected by different mean field, so we use parameter having relation with radius of each level. Therefore; this assumption causes that extracted data for average binding energy =-22.48MeV, =-23.79MeV, =-29.56MeV, and =-31.25MeVare considered for 27Al, 56Fe, 63Cu, and 107Ag nuclei, respectively. Achieving results have agreement with experimental data.
Numerical Solution of Model of Cancer Invasion with Tissue  [PDF]
Farhad Hatami, Mohammad Bagher Ghaemi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47143

Chemotaxis-haptotaxis model of cancer invasion with tissue remodeling is one of the important PDEs systems in medicine, mathematics and biomathematics. In this paper we find the solution of chemotaxis-haptotaxis model of cancer invasion using the new homotopy perturbation method (NHPM). Then by comparing some estimated numerical result with simulation laboratory result, it shows that NHPM is an efficient and exact way for solving cancer PDEs system.

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