In this paper, we first present the generalized result that the statistical gain of combining homogeneous traffic streams, of any traffic type, is a linear function of the number of streams being multiplexed. That is, given a fixed Quality of Service (QoS) constraint, like percentile delay, D, the bandwidth requirement of n streams to satisfy the delay constraint D is n x R x c where R is the bandwidth requirement of a single stream that satisfies the constraint D and c e (0,1]. We present the linear bandwidth gain result, using an extensive simulation study for video traces, specifically, streaming video (IPTV traces) and interactive video (CISCO Telepresence traces).
The linear bandwidth gain result is then verified using analytical tools from two different domains. First, we validate the linearity using Queueing Theory Analysis, specifically using Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP) and Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) modeling. Second, we formally prove the linear behavior using the Asymptotic Analysis of Algorithms, specifically, the Big-O analysis.
In this paper we characterize those hemirings for which each k-ideal is idempotent. We also characterize those hemirings for which each fuzzy k-ideal is idempotent. The space of prime k-ideals (fuzzy k-prime k-ideals) is topologized.