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Modelling of Submerged and Aerated Filters Modelación de filtros sumergidos y aireados
Miguel A. Díaz Marrero,Farah de Armas Machado
Revista Cubana de Ingeniería , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/rci.v1i2.21
Abstract: Biofilm processes have been profusely used during the last ten years. This, due to the more and more rigorous standards for wastewater treatment and the necessity of a better use of the space. Biofilm processes include the "submerged fixed bed reactors". Such reactors are characterized by their high buffer capacity as a consequence of the organic load fluctuations originated by the high capacity of adsorption of the biofilm. This paper shows the modeling of an aerated fixed bed submerged reactor at pilot plant scale, for the treatment of a synthetic substrate. An experiment design was used. Operational variables used were organic matter concentration as COD, hydraulic retention time, packing area and aeration level. Se realiza un estudio del comportamiento de un reactor de cama fija sumergido y aireado a escala piloto en el tratamiento de un residual sintético. Los objetivos que se persiguen son modelar el comportamiento de un filtro sumergido y aireado ante variaciones de parámetros operacionales tales como: concentración de la alimentación, tiempo de retención hidráulico, área de empaquetadura y nivel de aireación. Para ello se realizó un dise o de experimento que fue procesado a través del Stat Graphics, determinando la influencia que sobre la remoción de la demanda química de oxígeno tiene estos parámetros o la combinación entre ellos.
Reuso de efluentes em torres de resfriamento - estudo conceitual: Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro = Water reuse for cooling towers – conceptual study: Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Denize Dias de Carvalho,Bernardo José Farah Machado
Acta Scientiarum : Technology , 2010,
Abstract: O reuso de água é ferramenta valiosa na gest o da água, que promove a otimiza o da utiliza o do recurso desta, que reduz e, muitas vezes, até elimina os impactos no meio ambiente. Neste trabalho foi investigada a composi o do efluente secundário da esta o de tratamento de efluentes (ETE APOIO) do Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de propor o processo adequado à reutiliza o deste efluente como água de reposi o nas torres de resfriamento desse Aeroporto. Com base nas análises de cátions, anions, DBO e DQO, verificou-se o parametro SDT - Cl- como crítico para processamento do efluente. Foi proposta uma sequência para reutiliza o do efluente que continha o tratamento de osmose inversa, o custo do m3 produzido por essa sequência foi estimado em R$ 2,90 m-3. Water reuse is an important tool in water management; it is a conceptthat promotes optimization of the water resource, reducing and often even eliminating environmental impacts. In this work, the composition of a secondary effluent (from the effluent treatment station (ETE APOIO) at Rio de Janeiro International Airport) was analyzed, with theaim of determining an adequate process for the reutilization of this effluent as replacement cooling water. Chemical analyses such as cation and anion analysis, BOD and COD were performed. Based on these analyses, it was found that TDS - Cl- was the critical parameter foreffluent processing. A treatment system was proposed for effluent reuse including reverse osmosis; the cost estimate per m3 produced by this system was R$ 2.90 m-3.
Caracterización de cepas cubanas de VIH-1 por ensayos biológicos y métodos bioinformáticos Characterization of Cuban strains of HIV-1 by bioassays and bio-information methods
Leonor Lobaina Barthelemy,Liuber Yans Machado Zaldívar,Enrique Noa Romero,Madeline Blanco de Armas
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2010,
Abstract: Mediante ensayos biológicos clásicos se ha podido determinar el uso del correceptor por las cepas de VIH-1, las cuales se han clasificado en R5, X4 o R5/X4, características que guardan relación con el fenotipo NIS o IS y con la evolución clínica. Por métodos bioinformáticos se han relacionado cambios aminoacídicos en la región del lazo V3 del env con el uso del correceptor. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de caracterización de once cepas provenientes de individuos infectados con VIH-1, cinco de ellos seropositivos asintomáticos y seis progresores rápidos al SIDA. Se compararon los resultados del estudio fenotípico realizado por dos ensayos biológicos clásicos, uso de correceptores y capacidad de inducir sincicios en MT2 y tres métodos bioinformáticos, regla 11/25, matrices de puntos en posiciones específicas (PSSM) y el programa geno2pheno. Las cinco cepas de seropositivos asintomáticos coincidieron por todos los métodos como R5/NIS. Cinco de las seis cepas de progresores rápidos se clasificaron R5/X4 e IS por los ensayos biológicos; mientras dos clasificaron R5/X4 por Geno 2 Pheno, una por PSSM y todas fueron X4 puras por la regla 11/25. Los ensayos utilizados en el estudio permitieron caracterizar las cepas aisladas y relacionar el fenotipo con la evolución de la infección, por lo que valoramos que por ensayos biológicos o métodos bioinformáticas se pueden hacer estudios de caracterización, su utilidad está en dependencia del objetivo que se persiga. By the classic biological assays it has been possible to determine the use of HIV-1 strains co-receptor, which have been classified in R5, X4 or R5/X4, characteristic related to the NIS or IS phenotype and to the clinical course. By bio-information methods the amino acid changes in the region of V3 loop of the env using the co-receptor. In present paper are showed the results of a characterization study of eleven strains from HIV-1 infected subjects, five seropositive and six with a fast progression to AIDS. Authors compared the results of phenotype study conducted by two classic assays, use of co-receptors and ability to induce syncytia in MT2 and three bio-information methods, rule 11/25, point matrices in specific locations (PSSM) and the geno2pheno program. The five strains from asymptomatic seropositive patients coincided according all methods used as R5/NIS. Five of the six strains from fast progression patients were classified as R5/X4 and IS by biological assays; whereas two were classified as R5/X4 by Geno 2 Pheno, one by PSSM and all were pure X4 by the rule 11/25. The as
Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance in untreated HIV-infected patients in Cuba
L Machado Zaldivar,M Dubed Echevarría,M Blanco de Armas,H Díaz Torres
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18199
Abstract: Background: Knowledge of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in untreated HIV-infected patients is fundamental in the epidemiological surveillance programs, because it is associated with suboptimal virological outcome of first-line HAART. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of TDR in newly diagnosed Cuban patients. Methods: 250 HIV-1-infected patients diagnosed between 2009 and 2011 were included in the study. RNA was isolated from plasma and used as target to amplify the pol gen by RT-nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced and the data generated used to determine the viral subtype by phylogenetic analyses. The TDR were detected by means of Stanford University calibrated population resistance tool, using the 2009 surveillance drug resistance mutations list. Results: Baseline characteristic were as follows: 78.4% of the cases were males, mean age was 35.5 years, 66.3% of infections were acquired by homosexual transmission and the median viral load was 4.6 log. The 39.2% of the analyzed samples corresponded to the subtype B and 60.8% for non-B genetic forms, with prevalence of CRF 19_cpx, CRF 20 BG and CRF 23 BG [1]. The overall prevalence of TDR increased in comparison with previous studies (19.2% versus 5.2%) [2]. The majority of mutations were seen within the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI) (8.5%) and non-NRTI (9.7%). TDR was less common in the group of protease inhibitors (1.7%). The most common mutations were M184V and K103N for the NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively. The prevalence of TDR in samples of the subtype G was significant (p = 0.005) in comparison with other genetic forms. Conclusions: This study confirms an increase in the transmission of resistance-associated mutations, which indicates the importance of maintaining a constant epidemiological surveillance of the TDR in newly diagnosed Cuban patients.
Empleo del AMPLICOR HIV-1 DNA test v 1.5 en el diagnóstico de la infección perinatal por el VIH-1 en Cuba
Machado Zaldívar,Liuber Y.; Blanco de Armas,Madeline; Lubián Caballero,Ana Luisa; Díaz Torres,Héctor M.;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2010,
Abstract: introduction: hiv-1 proviral dna amplification is the preferential method for hiv diagnosis infection in infants and it has been used in cuba since 1992. amplicor hiv-1 dna kit is an in vitro qualitative assay for the detection of hiv-1 proviral dna in the whole blood. objective: this paper showed the results of the use of this kit for the first time in cuba for the perinatal diagnosis of hiv-1 infection. methods: three hundred forty six whole blood samples from children of hiv seropositive women were analyzed by the amplicor hiv-1 dna kit in the period 2005-2007. results: among the tested samples, six were positive, and 340 negative. conclusions: the assay was reproducible under the cuban conditions and the achieved results made the diagnosis and follow up of children of hiv-1 seropositive mothers possible.
Optimización del proceso Cosecha – Transporte – Recepción de la ca a de azúcar
Yoan Martínez López,Neeldes Matos Ramírez,Rudy Lázaro Pérez de Armas,Yudiel Madruga Machado
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Informáticas , 2012,
Abstract: En este artículo se desarrolla la implementación de un software para optimizar el proceso de transportación de la ca a de azúcar, basados en aspectos que permiten darle una solución al problema de la organización de los procesos antes mencionado, mediante la utilización de la Teoría de Colas. La organización de este eslabón facilita el aumento de la productividad del sistema, así como la disponibilidad de los mismos atendiendo a lo que se llama hoy el balance de tiro, desde la ubicación en una zona limpia no muy lejana de las vasijas (carretas o remolques) hasta las operaciones. Antes, durante y después de llenos los remolques incidirán en la eficiencia de la cosecha. El mismo facilita el desarrollo diario de la planificación del transporte en el proceso de cosecha y permitirá la adopción de decisiones que disminuyan las principales deficiencias que limitan el incremento de la productividad y la eficiencia de los medios de transporte en la ca a de azúcar, lo cual afecta el costo de la transportación de la materia prima en la cosecha e incrementará el aprovechamiento de las reservas técnicas organizativas en el campo durante la cosecha y la recepción en los centros de recepción y el basculador del central.
Empleo del AMPLICOR HIV-1 DNA test v 1.5 en el diagnóstico de la infección perinatal por el VIH-1 en Cuba Use of Amplicor HIV-1 DNA test v.1.5 in diagnosis of perinatal infection from HIV-1 in Cuba
Liuber Y. Machado Zaldívar,Madeline Blanco de Armas,Ana Luisa Lubián Caballero,Héctor M. Díaz Torres
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2010,
Abstract: INTRODUCCIóN: la amplificación del ADN proviral del VIH-1, constituye un método preferencial para el diagnóstico perinatal, empleado en Cuba desde 1992. El estuche AMPLICOR HIV-1 DNA es un ensayo cualitativo in vitro para la detección del ADN proviral de VIH-1 en sangre total. OBJETIVO: en el presente trabajo se reportan los resultados del empleo de este estuche por primera vez en Cuba para el diagnóstico perinatal de VIH-1. MéTODOS: entre 2005 y 2007 se trabajaron mediante el estuche AMPLICOR HIV-1 DNA, 346 muestras de sangre total de ni os nacidos de madres seropositivas al VIH-1. RESULTADOS: del total de muestras trabajadas, 6 resultaron positivas y 340 fueron negativas. CONCLUSIONES: el estuche fue reproducible en las condiciones cubanas y los resultados obtenidos permitieron realizar el diagnóstico y seguimiento de ni os nacidos de madres seropositivas. INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 proviral DNA amplification is the preferential method for HIV diagnosis infection in infants and it has been used in Cuba since 1992. AMPLICOR HIV-1 DNA kit is an in vitro qualitative assay for the detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA in the whole blood. OBJECTIVE: this paper showed the results of the use of this kit for the first time in Cuba for the perinatal diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: three hundred forty six whole blood samples from children of HIV seropositive women were analyzed by the AMPLICOR HIV-1 DNA kit in the period 2005-2007. RESULTS: among the tested samples, six were positive, and 340 negative. CONCLUSIONS: the assay was reproducible under the Cuban conditions and the achieved results made the diagnosis and follow up of children of HIV-1 seropositive mothers possible.
Weakening of the demographic effect and consolidation of a new party system: evidence for the 2009 Uruguayan elections
De Armas,Gustavo;
Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política , 2008,
Abstract: between the elections of 1984 and 2004 the uruguayan party system experienced a gradual but also deep transformation. the new party system that emerged in 2004, constituted by two large -formal or informal- coalitions (a new two-party system), can be explained by long-term trends (the demographic change of the electorate) and electoral conjunctures. the decrease of frente amplio's vote turnout between 2004 and 2009 can be explained by the weakening of the "demographic effect" and by the relatively significant transfer of votes, from the left coalition to the other parties. despite those changes, the recent election seems to have consolidated the party system that emerged from the previous election, which is likely to remain over the next years.
Sociedad y políticas sociales en Uruguay: desde la transición democrática al gobierno del frente amplio
Gustavo de ARMAS CURIEL
América Latina Hoy , 2009,
Abstract: RESUMEN: Durante los últimos veinte a os Uruguay ha experimentado diversas transformaciones en su economía y sociedad. Luego del crecimiento sostenido de la economía uruguaya entre 1984 y 1998, y de la consecuente reducción de la pobreza (de 46% a 15%), el país atravesó una de las peores crisis económicas de su historia: el Producto Bruto Interno (PBI) disminuyó en más de 20% y el porcentaje de población pobre se duplicó, alcanzando entre los ni os niveles similares a los de 1986. Durante este período, en Uruguay se han ido consolidando algunos fenómenos de exclusión social que obedecen a causas estructurales más profundas. Frente a este panorama, el gobierno del Frente Amplio elegido en el 2004 se propone desarrollar una serie de cambios en el campo de las políticas sociales. En este contexto, deberá enfrentar varios desafíos: entre otros, la transformación de la arquitectura del Estado de Bienestar uruguayo construido a comienzos del siglo XX y la reasignación del gasto público social. ABSTRACT: During the last twenty years Uruguay has experienced several economic and social changes. After a period of economic growth between 1984 and 1998, and the consequent reduction of poverty rates (from 46% to 15%), the country went through one of the worst economic crisis of its history: The GDP was reduced in a 20% and the poverty rate was increased from 15% to 33%, reaching the same levels of 1986 among children. During this period, Uruguay has consolidated several processes of social exclusion produced by structural causes. In this context, ?the new government elected in 2004, is developing a set of changes in social policies and will have to face several challenges: the transformation of the architecture of its traditional Welfare State, built in the beginnings of the 20th century, and the relocation of the social budget.
Scorpions in the modern Cuban culture: An introductory iconography.
Armas, L. F. de
Euscorpius , 2011,
Abstract: Some graphic examples of the role of scorpions in the present-day culture of Cuba are presented. They include tattoos, jewels, carpets, caps, and drawings by children, among other objects of personal or social usage. Increased use of this arachnid as a cultural element among Cuban people during last 50 years seems to be directly related with globalization, mostly through the TV and movie
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