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Contrasting Transmission Dynamics of Co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum: Implications for Malaria Control and Elimination
Rintis Noviyanti?,Farah Coutrier,Retno A. S. Utami?,Hidayat Trimarsanto?,Yusrifar K. Tirta?,Leily Trianty?,Andreas Kusuma?,Inge Sutanto?,Ayleen Kosasih?,Rita Kusriastuti
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003739
Abstract: Background Outside of Africa, P. falciparum and P. vivax usually coexist. In such co-endemic regions, successful malaria control programs have a greater impact on reducing falciparum malaria, resulting in P. vivax becoming the predominant species of infection. Adding to the challenges of elimination, the dormant liver stage complicates efforts to monitor the impact of ongoing interventions against P. vivax. We investigated molecular approaches to inform the respective transmission dynamics of P. falciparum and P. vivax and how these could help to prioritize public health interventions. Methodology/ Principal Findings Genotype data generated at 8 and 9 microsatellite loci were analysed in 168 P. falciparum and 166 P. vivax isolates, respectively, from four co-endemic sites in Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan, Sumba and West Timor). Measures of diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure were used to gauge the transmission dynamics of each species in each setting. Marked differences were observed in the diversity and population structure of P. vivax versus P. falciparum. In Bangka, Kalimantan and Timor, P. falciparum diversity was low, and LD patterns were consistent with unstable, epidemic transmission, amenable to targeted intervention. In contrast, P. vivax diversity was higher and transmission appeared more stable. Population differentiation was lower in P. vivax versus P. falciparum, suggesting that the hypnozoite reservoir might play an important role in sustaining local transmission and facilitating the spread of P. vivax infections in different endemic settings. P. vivax polyclonality varied with local endemicity, demonstrating potential utility in informing on transmission intensity in this species. Conclusions/ Significance Molecular approaches can provide important information on malaria transmission that is not readily available from traditional epidemiological measures. Elucidation of the transmission dynamics circulating in a given setting will have a major role in prioritising malaria control strategies, particularly against the relatively neglected non-falciparum species.
Seasonal distribution of anti-malarial drug resistance alleles on the island of Sumba, Indonesia
Puji BS Asih, William O Rogers, Agustina I Susanti, Agus Rahmat, Ismail E Rozi, Mariska A Kusumaningtyas, Krisin, Sekartuti, Rita M Dewi, Farah N Coutrier, Awalludin Sutamihardja, Andre Ven, Robert W Sauerwein, Din Syafruddin
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-222
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected during malariometric surveys in the wet and dry seasons in 2007 using two-stage cluster sampling. Analysis of pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmdr1 gene copy number, dhfr, and dhps genes were done using protocols described previously.The 76T allele of the pfcrt gene is nearing fixation in this population. Pfmdr1 mutant alleles occurred in 72.8% and 53.3%, predominantly as 1042D and 86Y alleles that are mutually exclusive. The prevalence of amplified pfmdr1 was found 41.9% and 42.8% of isolates in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The frequency of dhfr mutant alleles was much lower, either as a single 108N mutation or paired with 59R. The 437G allele was the only mutant dhps allele detected and it was only found during dry season.The findings demonstrate a slighly higher distribution of drug-resistant alleles during the wet season and support the policy of replacing CQ with ACT in this area, but suggest that SP might still be effective either alone or in combination with other anti-malarials.The most widely used anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), are failing at an accelerating rate in most endemic countries, including Indonesia. In response to this situation the World Health Organization has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), wherein an artemisinin derivative is paired with a second partner anti-malarial drug. This policy, however, has several limitations in resource-poor settings where diagnostic facilities are challenged by availability, cost, compliance and requirements for proper monitoring [1]. In addition, the rapid spread of resistance to currently available anti-malarials is limiting options for ACT partner drugs.The molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to anti-malarial drugs have been investigated. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of Plasmodium falciparum genes have been associated with resistance to CQ [2] and SP [3]. In addition,
Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia
Din Syafruddin, Krisin, Puji Asih, Sekartuti, Rita M Dewi, Farah Coutrier, Ismail E Rozy, Augustina I Susanti, Iqbal RF Elyazar, Awalludin Sutamihardja, Agus Rahmat, Michael Kinzer, William O Rogers
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-8
Abstract: Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal.Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed.Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan local malaria control efforts and to measure the impact of such efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia [1-7], there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Therefore, point prevalence surveys for malaria, designed to estimate malaria prevalence in the West Sumba District of East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, were conducted. Previous
Modeling Breast Cancer Incidence Rates: A Comparison between the Components of Functional Time Series (FTS) Model Applied on Karachi (Pakistan) and US Data  [PDF]
Farah Yasmeen
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.68052
Abstract: Several studies showed that the breast cancer incidence rates are higher in high-income (developed) countries, due to the link of breast cancer with several risk factors and the presence of systematic screening policies. Some of the authors suggest that lower breast cancer incidence rates in low-income (developing) countries probably reflect international variation in hormonal factors and accessibility to early detection facilities. Recent studies showed that the breast cancer increased rapidly among women in Pakistan (a developing country) and it became the first malignancy among females of Pakistan. Although, the incidence rates may contain important evidence for understanding and control of the disease; however in Pakistan, the breast cancer incidence data have never been available in the last five decades since independence; rather, only hospital-based data are available. In this study, we intend to apply Functional Time Series (FTS) models to the breast cancer incidence rates of United State (developed country), and to see the difference between various components (age and time) of Functional Time Series (FTS) models applied independently on the breast cancer incidence rates of Karachi (Pakistan) and US. Past studies have already suggested that the incidence of US breast cancer cases was expected to increase in the coming decades. A progressive increase in the number of new cases is already predetermined by the high birth rate that occurred during the middle part of the century, and it will lead to nearly a doubling in the number of cases in about 4 decades. We also obtain 15 years predictions of breast cancer incidence rates in United States and compare them with the forecasts of incidence curves for Karachi. Development of methods for cancer incidence trend forecasting can provide a sound and accurate foundation for planning a comprehensive national strategy for optimal partitioning of research resources between the need for development of new treatments and the need for new research directed toward primary preventive measures.
Measuring Global Warming: Global and Hemisphere Mean Temperature Anomalies Predictions Using Sliced Functional Time Series (SFTS) Model  [PDF]
Farah Yasmeen
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2019.95026
Abstract: In this study, the sliced functional time series (SFTS) model is applied to the Global, Northern and Southern temperature anomalies. We obtained the combined land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature from Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), NASA. The data are available for Global mean, Northern Hemisphere mean and Southern Hemisphere means (monthly, quarterly and annual) since 1880 to present (updated through March 2019). We analyze the global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address the questions about the reality of global warming. We detected the outliers during the last century not only in global temperature series but also in northern and southern hemisphere series. The forecasts for the next twenty years are obtained using SFTS models. These forecasts are compared with ARIMA, Random Walk with drift and Exponential Smoothing State Space (ETS) models. The comparison is made on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the length of prediction intervals.
Unusual cause of syncopal episodes  [PDF]
Raymond Farah, Rola Khamisy-Farah, Jamal Awad
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.24030
Abstract: We report a 43-year-old man who had been experiencing recurrent attacks of syncope for several years, and a search for the causes behind these lapses in consciousness was fruitless for many years. The patient was admitted to our department of internal medicine because of the symptoms flushing, hypotension and episodes of syncope. After a careful anamnesis and then a comprehensive investigation, we reached the definitive diagnosis of the infrequent disease “systemic mastocytosis”.
Time-Dependent Nonplanar Dust-Ion-Acoustic Gardner Double Layers  [PDF]
Farah Deeba, A. A. Mamun
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2011.13009
Abstract: A theoretical investigation has been made on the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) double layers (DLs) in a dusty plasma system, containing inertial ions, Boltzmann electrons, and negatively charged stationary dust. In this investigation, in order to analyze the time dependent nonplanar DIA DLs, we have used the modified Gardner equation, which has been obtained by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been found that the behaviors of DIA DLs have been significantly modified by the time period and the nonplanar geometry. The nonplanar DIA DLs has been found to be similar with planar DIA DLs only at large time scale and the cylindrical DIA DLs have been found to be smaller than the spherical DLs, but larger than the planar DLs.
The Basic (G'/G)-Expansion Method for the Fourth Order Boussinesq Equation  [PDF]
Hasibun Naher, Farah Aini Abdullah
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.310168
Abstract: The (G'/G)-expansion method is simple and powerful mathematical tool for constructing traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations which arise in engineering sciences, mathematical physics and real time application fields. In this article, we have obtained exact traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear partial differential equation, namely, the fourth order Boussinesq equation involving parameters via the (G'/G)-expansion method. In this method, the general solution of the second order linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients is implemented. Further, the solitons and periodic solutions are described through three different families. In addition, some of obtained solutions are described in the figures with the aid of commercial software Maple.
Digital Road Profile Using Kinematic GPS
Ashraf Farah
Artificial Satellites , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10018-009-0023-6
Abstract: A Digital Road Profile (DRP) is a digital representation of road surface topography or terrain in the longitudinal direction. The need for accurate DRP is vital in two stages; before the road construction starts and after the road construction finished where the verification of its geometrical characteristics is essential for engineering safety purposes. Classical surveying techniques are traditionally used for the DRP generation with limitation of high-cost and time-waste. Kinematic DGPS or Real Time Kinematic DGPS positioning can provide accurate enough results for such application. This paper presents an assessment study of using kinematic GPS technique for DRP generation comparing with classical survey in south Egypt. The results shows that, vehicle-GPS system used in combination with post processing kinematic DGPS gave satisfactory accuracy for nearly all points for a distance of nearly 2 km. with max. and min. difference not more than 7.7 cm, a mean value of 0.10 cm and a Root Mean Square RMS value of 4.11 cm.
Analysis of Misunderstanding Caused by Different Interpretations of Speech Act Labels in Tintin and Asterix Comic Series
Farah Attamimi
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents analysis of misunderstanding occurred in a conversation which is caused by different interpretation of speech act labels between the speaker and the hearer. Misunderstanding occurred in these comic series causes various emotional effects to the hearer involved in the conversation. The hearer might feel happy, impressed, embarrassed, or even proud of what the speaker conveys through his/ her utterance. It depends on the face wants used and intended between the participants in the conversation. According to Goffman in Brown and Levinson (1987), “face is something that is emotionally invested, and that can be lost, maintained, or enhanced, and must be constantly attended to in interaction” (p. 60). There are two kinds of face wants. The positive purpose is called face saving act, while the negative one is called face threatening act. The data in this paper are taken from Tintin and Asterix comic series. The theories used cover pragmatics area, especially taxonomy of speech act theory (Yule, 1996; Mey, 2001; Leech, 1991) and theory of the notion of face by Erving Goffman (as cited in Yule, 1996; Thomas, 1995). Therefore, this paper will try to convey how the misinterpretation of speech act labels affects the participants in the conversation.
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