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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11882 matches for " Family Planning "
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Modern Family Planning Utilization and Associated Factors among HIV Positive Reproductive Age Women in Debre Markos Referral Hospital Northwest Ethiopia, 2014 G.C.  [PDF]
Selamawit G. Egzeabher, Mekionnen Ayichiluhm Bishaw, Teketo Kassaw Tegegne, Dube Jara Boneya
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.51005
Abstract: The study was conducted to find out modern family planning utilization and associated factor among HIV positive reproductive age women attending anti retroviral treatment care in Debremarkos referral hospital, in Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out. Three hundred thirty five HIV positive reproductive age women were selected using systematic random sampling methods. Data were collected and analyzed. About 47.9% HIV positive reproductive age women are currently using modern family planning methods. Level of education has significant effect on utilization of modern family planning methods. Women with primary education and secondary education and above are utilizing modern family planning methods 2.71 times and 6.91 times more from non educated women, respectively. Number of children has also effect in utilization of modern family planning methods. Those who have one child and two and more children are utilizing modern family planning methods 5.31 and 11.66 times more than those who do not have children, respectively. Utilization of modern family planning methods was low and the most commonly used methods were condom and inject able contraceptives. In order to enhance utilization of modern family planning methods for HIV positive women, family planning services must be integrated with anti retro viral treatment care and support service sites and women’s educational status must be improved.
Perceptions of Couples Who Use Jadelle Implant in Blantyre District, Malawi  [PDF]
Brima Osaio Kamara, Rachel Rodriguez, Genesis Chorwe-Sungani, Angela Chimwaza
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.511106
Abstract: Malawi has a high total fertility rate of 5.7 per woman and Jadelle implant may be an ideal option for couples who want to practice family planning. Jadelle is a long term contraceptive which is inserted just under the skin of a woman’s upper, inner arm by a nurse or midwife and prevents a woman from getting pregnant for a period of five years. But the use of Jadelle for family planning depends on perceptions of couples. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of couples who choose Jadelle as their family planning method at a Central Hospital in Blantyre district. This study used a descriptive qualitative design. A purposive sample of 5 couples was used. Ethical clearance was granted by relevant authorities. Data was analysed through content analysis. The findings showed that the following nine themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) men and women perspectives about mode of action of Jadelle; 2) knowledge about effectiveness and efficacy of Jadelle among men and women; 3) sources of information about Jadelle; 4) information given to Jadelle users by providers; 5) benefits of Jadelle; 6) challenges associated with Jadelle; 7) myths associated with Jadelle; 8) attitudes of providers of Jadelle and 9) role played by men regarding use of Jadelle. In conclusion, this study found that both men and women generally lacked knowledge of Jadelle. Men play a vital role when couples are choosing contraceptives. Every opportunity should be utilised at antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinics to teach individuals about family planning. This may allow women and men to make informed choices about the use of Jadelle.
Currently Married Women with an Unmet Need for Contraception in Minia Governorate, Egypt: Profile and Determinants  [PDF]
Ebtesam Esmail Hassan, Eman Ramadan Ghazawy, Naglaa Mohammed Amein
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.711018
Background: Understanding the magnitude of unmet contraceptive need and the underlying determinants will help the programs and services to respond effectively. Aim: Identify the prevalence and determinants of unmet contraceptive need among married women in the childbearing period in Minia Governorate. Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study was done among married women of child bearing age (18 - 49 years). Total 534 study participants were selected randomly and interviewed by using pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Overall level of unmet need was 12.7%. Women age > 35 years old were about three times (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.13 - 7.35) more likely to have unmet need for family planning compared to younger women. Women who had more children (adjusted OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.67), more female offspring (adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.65), and women whose partner had non-supportive attitude towards family planning (adjusted OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53 - 5.72) were more likely to have unmet need. Conclusion: The prevalence of unmet need of family planning among women in Minia Governorate remains high. Therefore, family planning programs that cover the older woman’s need for limiting and that focus on couples could be useful in reducing the rate of unmet need.
Brazilian Family Farming Agriculture in the Biodiesel Production: A Portrait of Regional Possibilities  [PDF]
Arlindo Kamimura, Aline de Oliveira, Geraldo F. Burani
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.21002
Abstract: Brazil is a country deeply labeled by economic and social contradictions when the distinct regions are placed in comparison. The living conditions of peasant vary greatly according to region where he lives. After the promulgation of the constitution of 1988 policies aimed to remedy these regional imbalances, mainly re- lated to rural people have been settled. In this sense, one of the governmental initiatives to lower this problem was the encouraging incentive program to cultivate castor beans and other crops by family farmers to produce biodiesel to share 50% of the mixture with mineral diesel in the proportion defined by law. The blend was initially 2% starting in 2006 and 5% until 2012. The Brazilian consumption of diesel oil in the 2006 was approximately 40 billions of liters in the transportation, agriculture and others sectors, so that a market of 800 millions of liters of biodiesel was suddenly created at attractive prices with total exemption from federal taxes. This paper analyzes what actually such market means in economic terms to various regions of Brazil. Two regions – North and Midwest still display a high degree of poverty for small farmers. The national biodiesel program may represent an interesting economical alternative for them.
Novel Method of Detecting Pregnancy Using Microwaves  [PDF]
Anil Lonappan
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.48047
Abstract: This paper reports a study of the dielectric properties of pregnant women’s blood samples as well non-pregnant women’s blood samples at microwave frequencies. The cavity perturbation technique in the frequency range between 2 and 3 GHz was used in this study. It is observed that the dielectric constant of pregnant women’s blood samples is higher than that of non-pregnant women’s blood samples, and the conductivity of pregnant women’s blood samples is higher than that of non-pregnant women’s blood samples. This is a novel in-vitro method of determining pregnancy. The same samples were also subjected to investigations in the clinical laboratory for quantitative pregnancy blood tests. Determination of pregnancy will help the woman to make preparations for proper prenatal care or family planning.
Routine abortion training matters for obstetrics and gynecology residents  [PDF]
Sahnah Lim, Corey Westover, Rini B. Ratan, Maryam Guiahi
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.310134

Background: We set out to compare resident perspective regarding self-rated ability to perform abortion procedures, abortion attitudes and satisfaction with training at programs with routine and optional abortion training. Methods: We distributed surveys and conducted 1-h focus groups for 62 residents at six New York City OB/GYN programs; three offer routine abortion training. We compared resident survey responses at programs with routine versus optional training regarding self-rated ability to perform abortion procedures, abortion attitudes and satisfaction with training. We reviewed focus group transcripts to understand differences related to satisfaction with abortion training. Results: Residents at routine programs reported higher proportions of self-rated ability to perform abortion procedures (all surveyed procedures p ≤ 0.05) and were more likely to fully participate in abortion services than residents at optional programs (42/45 vs. 12/17, p = 0.03). Residents at routine programs were more likely to be “very satisfied” with training (44/45 vs. 12/17, p < 0.001) based on three aspects of training: patient care management, self-rated ability to perform abortion procedures and rotation characteristics. Conclusion: Residents who received routine abortion training have higher rates of self-reported procedural competency and are more likely to be satisfied with training than residents who were offered optional training.

Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Girma Temam Shifa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611155
Abstract: Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2010 in 9 kebeles of Arba Minch Demographic and Health Development Program. Results: In this study, 28.3% of all women & 32.7% currently married were using any contraceptive methods during the time of the survey. Almost all current users were using modern methods; the most widely used method was injectable (24.2%) followed by implants (2.4%) and pills (1.3%). Current marital status, ethnicity, age, education, presence of radio set in the house hold and discussion about family planning in the last 6 month before the study with their partner were the independent predictors of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The contraceptive prevalence rate is promising but efforts should continue to further increase the contraceptive coverage especially on kebeles with low coverage by targeting men and misconceptions about family planning.
Making Family Planning Services Relevant to Adolescents: Perspectives from Rural Communities in Central Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Charlotte Tawiah, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Abubakari Sulemana, Emmanuel Mahama, George Adjei, Ellen Boamah, Alex Manu, Stephanie Gyaase, Charles Zandoh, Nelson Amanfo, Kwaku Poku Asante, Timothy Letsa, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411096
Abstract: In lower middle-income countries like Ghana, it is common to find low contraceptive use among adolescents with corresponding high pregnancy outcomes. Evidence points to the fact that the use of contraceptives prevents maternal, neonatal and infant deaths, but in most lower middle-income countries, socio-cultural practices inhibit adolescents’ use. Ensuring the uptake of family planning among adolescents is deemed a necessary means of reducing maternal, neonatal and infant mor-tality. This manuscript seeks to provide contextually relevant approaches to satisfying family planning needs of adolescents in a population lacking it. We employed a qualitative study design from an interpretive paradigm with phenomenology as the methodology to understand societal attitudes towards family planning delivery to adolescents, so as to arrive at contextually appro-priate ways of providing family planning to this needy group. Focused group discussions and in-depth interviews techniques were used in data collection among adolescents, relevant commu-nity opinion leaders and family planning & health services providers. Themes that emerged from data analysis with respect to “perspectives on family planning care delivery to adolescents” and “best ways in addressing adolescents’ family planning needs” are presented, followed by discussion of the issues emerging. A significant and encouraging finding of the study was that opinion leaders and healthcare providers viewed family planning as a means of protecting adolescents against pregnancies and their complications. A key recommendation is for policy makers and political leaders to enact legislations that enable adolescents to have friendly family planning service delivery in all places and at all times.
Family Planning Awareness, Perceptions and Practice among Community Members in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephaney Gyaase, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Robert Adda, Abena Konadu Yawson, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Martha Abdulai, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwame Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Francis Dzabeng, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyeman, Frank Baiden, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.31001
Abstract: Family planning is known to prevent maternal deaths, but some social norms, limited supplies and inconsistent use makes this difficult to achieve in most low- and middle-income countries. In spite of the high fertility levels in most sub-Saharan African countries and the potential economic benefits of family planning, its patronage remains very low in the sub-region. This study was with the objective of identifying the levels of awareness, utilization, access to and perceptions about family planning and contraception. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, with data collected from multiple sources using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Relevant findings included a marked disconnect between family planning/contraceptive knowledge and use. The pills and injectables were the most frequently used, but females in the study population poorly patronised emergency contraception. Supplies of most family planning methods were found to be health facility based, requiring clients to have to necessarily go there for services. Some respondents harboured perceptions that family planning was the responsibility of females alone and that it fuelled promiscuity among female users. Recommendations made include ensuring that health facilities had adequate staff and expertise to provide facility-based family planning services and also to disabuse the minds of community members of the negative perceptions towards family planning.
Current Status, and Correlates of Abortion among Rural Women of Gonji Kollela District, Northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Girum Meseret, Molla Gedefaw, Resom Berhe, Adane Nigusie
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52018
Abstract: Background: Evidences indicate that unsafe abortion is one of the most important causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. Ethiopia strives to curb maternal mortality. Hence, current data on abortion, and its correlates are required. Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of abortion among women of reproductive age (15 - 49 years) in rural kebeles of Gonji Kolela District. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 611 women in six rural kebeles of Gonji Kolela District, Northwest Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and obstetric histories. The data were checked for completeness and cross-checked for accuracy and consistency. Result: The overall prevalence of abortion was 12% (10.9% spontaneous and 1.1% induced). Of these, 12.3% of them had experienced abortion more than once. Most of abortion took place at home, no medical care. The most important predictor of abortion was educational status. Those women whose educational attainment was primary and above were 2.4 times more likely to experience abortion than those who were not able to read and write (AOR [95%CI] = 2.4 [1.13 - 5.10]). Most women attributed abortion to work overload. Conclusion: Abortion is high among rural women. Recommendation: Mechanism should be devised to educate the community about care to pregnant women. Why abortion is high among women who have visited school warrants further research.
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