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OALib Journal期刊

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Effect of various penetration enhancers concentrations on diclafenac sodium release from cellulose acetate phthalate polymeric film
El-Nahas Hanan,Fakhry Ghazy,El-Ghamry Hanaa,Sabry
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2011,
Abstract: An investigation was conducted to evaluate the influence of different penetration enhancers in various concentrations on the release of diclofenac sodium (DFS) as a water-soluble drug from Cellulose acetate phthalate polymeric films containing 50% w/w PEG 600 as plasticizer, to choose the most appropriate enhancer and its optimum concentration to be used to achieve the maximum release and permeation of the drug. The addition of various enhancers, as isopropylmyristate (IPM; 0.2_5% w/w), oleic acid (OA; 0.2_5% w/w) and linoleic acid (LOA; 0.2_5% w/w), Tween 80 (T80;1_10% w/w) and transcutol, (TC; 1_10% w/w) enhanced the DFS release from the polymeric films. The enhancement ratio of the penetration enhancers used in the formulation of DFS were found to increase in the order of IPM>LOA>OA>T80>TC. (56.2, 54.1, 50, 48.7 and 48%, respectively). In vitro permeation studies were performed using rabbit abdominal skin as the permeating membrane. The results indicated that maximum permeation was obtained at 24hrs (0.5% IPM, 0.2% LOA, 1% OA, 0.5% T80 and 10% TC, increased skin permeation of DFS by 4.46, 4.06, 3.37, 1.65 and 1.49 time, respectively). IPM was found to be the most efficient enhancer. The results obtained from ANOVA test indicate that the difference in drug permeation rates is highly significant compared to the control formulation (P<0.05). The mechanism of drug release from the polymeric films obey Higuchi′s model.
Padina pavonica for the Removal of Dye from Polluted Water  [PDF]
Eman M. Fakhry
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.410246
Abstract:

The adsorption of fast yellow dye onto dried biomass Padina pavonica was studied in batch experiments. The amount of dye adsorbed (mg/g) was increased with the increase in initial dye concentration. An equilibrium time of about 90 min was achieved for dye concentrations ranging from 5 to 160 mg/L with maximum removal percentage of 73.2%. Pseudo-first and second order kinetic models have been used to analyze the adsorption data. The pseudo second-order kinetic model adequately described the adsorption data with correlation coefficient between 0.96 and 1.084. Fourier transform infra-red analysis demonstrated the chelating character of the dye molecule to different functionalities groups of the alga. Stirring speed higher than 50 rpm revealed no significant changes in dye adsorption. Temperature ranging from 15℃ to 65℃ showed stability followed by a decrease in adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy of adsorbent particles showed a high surface porosity allowing the free passage of dye molecules.

Fatty Acids Composition and Biodiesel Characterization of Dunaliella salina  [PDF]
Eman M. Fakhry, Dahlia M. El Maghraby
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.59091
Abstract:

This study discusses the perspectives regarding the green alga Dunaliella salina Toed for biodiesel manufacturing purposes. The alga was cultivated under controlled lab conditions. Biomass concentration at early stationary grown microalga was 2.6 mg/L dry weight, while the algal oil was about 27.1% of the biomass. Algal oil was esterified and analyzed using GLC technique. Fourteen fatty acid methyl esters were identified. The amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty ester fractions was 35% and 65% respectively. The physicochemical properties of fatty acids comprising biodiesel were discussed. However, culture optimization coupled with genetic improvement will definitely represent contributions to bring about innovation in oil hyper-producing D. salina that will ultimately meet with success.

The use of mitomycin C with autologous limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation for management of recurrent pterygium
Mohamed A Fakhry
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S16474
Abstract: se of mitomycin C with autologous limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation for management of recurrent pterygium Case Series (4650) Total Article Views Authors: Mohamed A Fakhry Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 123 - 127 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S16474 Mohamed A Fakhry Department of Ophthalmology, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare recurrence rates upon using mitomycin C (MMC) with limbal-conjunctival autograft for treating recurrent pterygia. Methodology: An interventional, prospective, comparative clinical study was performed in 30 eyes (26 patients) with recurrent pterygia, allocated into two groups: Group A (19 eyes) operated by pterygium excision and limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation (L-CAT) without MMC and Group B (20 eyes) operated with injection of 0.1 mL of MMC 0.15 mg/mL 1 month before L-CAT surgery. Exclusion criteria included patients with symblepharon, cicatricial conjunctival diseases, limbal stem cell deficiency, and other intraocular diseases. Results: A total of four cases of recurrences for Group A (P = 0.012) and one case of recurrence for Group B (P < 0.001) were recorded. Conclusions: Preoperative injection of MMC in low dose and concentration improves the results of L-CAT in recurrent pterygium.
Evaluation of intralesional propranolol for periocular capillary hemangioma
Awadein A, Fakhry MA
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S22909
Abstract: luation of intralesional propranolol for periocular capillary hemangioma Case Series (3985) Total Article Views Authors: Awadein A, Fakhry MA Published Date August 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 1135 - 1140 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S22909 Ahmed Awadein, Mohamed A Fakhry Cairo University Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of intralesional propranolol injection in the management of periocular capillary hemangioma. Methods: A prospective study was performed in 22 consecutive patients with periocular hemangioma. Twelve patients underwent intralesional propranolol injection and ten patients underwent intralesional triamcinolone injection. The size of the lesion was measured serially every week during the first month, every 2 weeks for the second month, and then monthly for another 2 months. The refractive error and degree of ptosis if present were measured before injection and at the end of the study. Results: There was reduction in the size of hemangioma, astigmatic error, and degree of ptosis in both groups. The difference in outcome between both groups was not statistically significant. Rebound growth occurred in 25% of the propranolol group and 30% of the steroid group but responded to reinjection. No adverse effects were reported during or after intralesional propranolol injection. Conclusion: Intralesional propranolol injection is an alternative and effective method for treatment of infantile periocular hemangioma.
Evaluation of intralesional propranolol for periocular capillary hemangioma
Awadein A,Fakhry MA
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Ahmed Awadein, Mohamed A FakhryCairo University Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of intralesional propranolol injection in the management of periocular capillary hemangioma.Methods: A prospective study was performed in 22 consecutive patients with periocular hemangioma. Twelve patients underwent intralesional propranolol injection and ten patients underwent intralesional triamcinolone injection. The size of the lesion was measured serially every week during the first month, every 2 weeks for the second month, and then monthly for another 2 months. The refractive error and degree of ptosis if present were measured before injection and at the end of the study.Results: There was reduction in the size of hemangioma, astigmatic error, and degree of ptosis in both groups. The difference in outcome between both groups was not statistically significant. Rebound growth occurred in 25% of the propranolol group and 30% of the steroid group but responded to reinjection. No adverse effects were reported during or after intralesional propranolol injection.Conclusion: Intralesional propranolol injection is an alternative and effective method for treatment of infantile periocular hemangioma.Keywords: propranolol, intralesional, periocular capillary hemangioma
The use of mitomycin C with autologous limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation for management of recurrent pterygium
Mohamed A Fakhry
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Mohamed A FakhryDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare recurrence rates upon using mitomycin C (MMC) with limbal-conjunctival autograft for treating recurrent pterygia.Methodology: An interventional, prospective, comparative clinical study was performed in 30 eyes (26 patients) with recurrent pterygia, allocated into two groups: Group A (19 eyes) operated by pterygium excision and limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation (L-CAT) without MMC and Group B (20 eyes) operated with injection of 0.1 mL of MMC 0.15 mg/mL 1 month before L-CAT surgery. Exclusion criteria included patients with symblepharon, cicatricial conjunctival diseases, limbal stem cell deficiency, and other intraocular diseases.Results: A total of four cases of recurrences for Group A (P = 0.012) and one case of recurrence for Group B (P < 0.001) were recorded.Conclusions: Preoperative injection of MMC in low dose and concentration improves the results of L-CAT in recurrent pterygium.Keywords: recurrent pterygium, limbal autograft, conjunctival autograft, mitomycin C
How low is too low? Cardiac risks with anemia
Samir M Fakhry, Paola Fata
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2845
Abstract: For years many physicians firmly believed that a hemoglobin of 10 g/dl and a hematocrit of 30% represented desirable goals in anemic patients, especially those undergoing surgical procedures and those with cardiac disease. Despite the paucity of objective data to support this contention, the so-called '10/30 rule' persisted until recently [1]. Most authorities attribute this bias to a 1942 report by Adams and Lundy [2] in which they recommended a hemoglobin of 10 g/dl and a hematocrit of 30% in the perioperative setting based on their clinical experience. Recent studies [3-7] have provided compelling evidence against the 10/30 rule in critically ill patients as well as in the perioperative period. Despite these data, many clinicians continue to provide transfusion using a hematocrit of 30% as a 'transfusion trigger' [8]. However, current practice and available evidence is gradually shifting from transfusing to an arbitrary hemoglobin (10/30) to achieving a level of hemoglobin necessary to meet the patient's tissue oxygen demands [9,10].The optimal hemoglobin level is more closely approximated by physiologic measurements [11]. In patients who are not critically ill, most studies have demonstrated that a substantially lower hemoglobin level (7 g/dl) can be tolerated if normovolemia is maintained. Experience in Jehovah's Witness patients has allowed an assessment of human tolerance of severe acute anemia and demonstrated the feasibility of survival in the case of very low hematocrit [12-18]. In a review of 61 medical and surgical reports published from 1970 to 1993, Viele and Weiskopf [17] identified 50 deaths attributed to anemia in untransfused Jehovah's Witnesses with hemoglobin concentrations of 8 g/dl or less, or hematocrit of 24% or less. Of the 50 deaths, 23 were thought to be primarily due to anemia. Except for three patients who died after cardiac surgery, all patients whose deaths were attributed to anemia died with hemoglobin concentrations of 5 g/dl or less
Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract
Fakhry MA, El Shazly MI
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S22879
Abstract: rsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract Case Series (2913) Total Article Views Authors: Fakhry MA, El Shazly MI Published Date July 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 973 - 978 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S22879 Mohamed A Fakhry1,2, Malak I El Shazly1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Cataract and Refractive Consultant, International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium. Settings: Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Methodology: Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49). The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon) intraocular lens (IOL). The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST), the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3). Results: Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE). As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01). All changes of CCT, and ECD over time were found statistically significant using one-way ANOVA testing (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Both modes are safe in hard cataract surgery, however the pure torsional mode showed less US energy used.
Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract
Fakhry MA,El Shazly MI
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Mohamed A Fakhry1,2, Malak I El Shazly11Department of Ophthalmology, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Cataract and Refractive Consultant, International Eye Hospital, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium.Settings: Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.Methodology: Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49). The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon) intraocular lens (IOL). The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST), the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3).Results: Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE). As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01). All changes of CCT, and ECD over time were found statistically significant using one-way ANOVA testing (P < 0.001).Conclusion: Both modes are safe in hard cataract surgery, however the pure torsional mode showed less US energy used.Keywords: torsional, cumulative dissipated energy, cataract
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