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Estimation of Tree Height and Forest Biomass Using Airborne LiDAR Data: A Case Study of Londiani Forest Block in the Mau Complex, Kenya  [PDF]
Faith Kagwiria Mutwiri, Patroba Achola Odera, Mwangi James Kinyanjui
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.72016
Abstract: Tactical decisions on natural resource management require accurate and up to date spatial information for sustainable forest management. Remote sensing devices by the use of multispectral data obtained from satellites or airborne sensors, allow substantial data acquisition that reduce cost of data collection and satisfy demands for continuous precise data. Forest height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) are crucial variables to predict volume and biomass. Traditional methods for estimation of tree heights and biomass are time consuming and labour intensive making it difficult for countries to carry out periodic National forest inventories to support forest management and REDD+ activities. This study assessed the applicability of LiDAR data in estimating tree height and biomass in a variety of forest conditions in Londiani Forest Block. The target forests were natural forest, plantation forests and other scattered forests analysed in a variety of topographic conditions. LiDAR data were collected by an aircraft flying at an elevation of 1550 m. The LIDAR pulses hitting the forest were used to estimate the forest height and the density of the vegetation, which implied biomass. LiDAR data were collected in 78 sampling plots of 15 m radius. The LiDAR data were ground truthed to compare its accuracy for above ground biomass (AGB) and height estimation. The correlation coefficients for heights between LiDAR and field data were 0.92 for the pooled data, 0.79 in natural forest, 0.95 in plantation forest and 0.92 in other scattered forest. AGB estimated from LiDAR and ground truthed data had a correlation coefficient of 0.86 for the pooled data, 0.78 in natural forest, 0.84 in plantation forest and 0.51 in other scattered forests. This implied 62%, 84% and 89% accuracy of AGB estimation in natural forests, other scattered forests and plantation forests respectively. The even aged conditions of plantation forests might have resulted to better estimates of height and AGB as compared to uneven aged natural forests and scattered forests. The results imply the reliability of using Airborne LIDAR scanning in forest biomass estimates in Kenya and are an option for supporting a National Forest Monitoring System for REDD+.
Consumer Ideology Determines Shopping Preferences at Farmers Markets in Two US Geographical Regions  [PDF]
Deanna Pucciarelli, Stacey Faith
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519205
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify if there were differences that existed in the behaviors, attitudes, awareness, and motivating factors that influenced people to shop at farmers’ markets and purchase USDA certified organic food in two geographic regions: Corvallis, Oregon and Muncie, Indiana. A survey was administered to consumers who shopped at the Minnetrista Farmers’ Market (MFM) and the Corvallis-Albany Farmers’ Market (CAFM) in the summer of 2012 to measure the shoppers’ purchasing perceptions. Specific areas of interest in this study included consumer values towards supporting local farmers and consuming USDA certified organic food. A comparison of responses between regions was analyzed. Results of the study provide insights on consumers’ purchasing attitudes and behaviors regarding USDA certified organic products, and why they chose to shop at Farmers’ Markets. Ideology was the strongest predictor for consumer purchasing behaviors. Understanding how regional differences affect food choice has implications for wellness programs and industry marketing materials.
Determinants of Human Impacts on the Coastal Area of the Niger Delta, Nigeria
Faith Ekong
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study determines, the dominant human activities and environmental attributes as a guide to coastal planning and management in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Data used for the analysis was collected within 3 years between 2002 and 2004. A total of 21 human and environmental variables were used for the study. Principal component analysis was carried out on the sets of data obtained. To determine the dominant human activity variables as well as the environmental components the 2 sets of data were correlated using stepwise multiple regressions. The result shows that agriculture (crop and fisheries), deforestation and human population are the major human activities impacting on the coastal environment with resultant pollution and environmental degradation. The study recommends that these activities be properly planned for and controlled in a well articulated integrated coastal planning and management framework to achieve a healthy balanced.
A Hmong Birth and Authoritative Knowledge: A Case study of choice, control, and the reproductive consequences of refugee status in American childbirth
Faith Nibbs
Hmong Studies Journal , 2010,
Abstract: One area in which anthropologists are concerned is in examining what the state of good health consists of from society to society, and what happens when practitioners of western medicine intersect with people who hold other explanations of well being. This paper explores how the western medical practices of childbirth in America are forced on Hmong refugee childbirth, and therefore, used as a continuation of governmentality, or refugee objectification. Ethnographic data is drawn from a case study of Hmong experiences with the birth process in an American hospital setting. Parallels are drawn between refugee resettlement programs which ultimately produce bodies that are objects of the state; and authoritative medical knowledge in childbirth which produces bodies that are objects of medicine. This research suggests that the American birth process becomes yet another site of refugee reprogramming and a struggle between western medicine and the refugee s understanding of experience.
The Texas Two-Step, Hmong Style: A Delicate Dance Between Culture and Ethnicity
Faith Nibbs
Hmong Studies Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Over the last thirty years since relocation, individual Hmong refugee communities in America have evolved with varying needs and outcomes adding to their complexity and diversity in the United States. There is a noted lack of research that examines these factors calling for further study to help understand the role of locality in the adjustment and diversity of refugees. This research begins a discussion on the unique Hmong adaptation in Texas. Unique and sometimes contradictory local factors deriving from thesocio-political environment of Texas have helped to shape a relatively small, but distinctively cosmopolitan community. This paper argues that Texan economic, environmental, and political differences have forged uncharacteristic understandings andchallenge conventional conceptions of what it means to be Hmong.
Use of Cervical Cerclage as a Treatment Option for Cervical Incompetence: Patient Characteristics, Presentation and Management over a 9 Year Period in a Kenyan Centre
PB Karau, MG Mutwiri, JA Ogeng’o, GM Karau
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2013,
Abstract: Treatment of cervical incompetence by cerclage and other methods has yet to be standardized, as its diagnosis is not uniformly accepted. Its diagnosis, particularly in the African setting, is mostly based on past obstetric history of pregnancy losses, while in developed centres; ultrasound diagnosis is increasingly being used. The mainstay of treatment in developing countries is cervical cerclage, although the indications and contraindications of this mode of treatment are not documented. Our aim was to appraise this practice in terms of patient characteristics, the diagnostic process and management at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. This was a descriptive retrospective study over 9 years. Predesigned questionnaires were employed to collect data on patient’s socio-demographic profile, presentation, risk factors, diagnosis and management of cervical incompetence. Chisquared test and student’s t-test were used to correlate variables. A total of 199 patients were treated for cervical incompetence, with the patient mean age being 27.97. 87.4% of the patients (p=0.02) were in the 20 to 35 years category. Most of the patients (60.1%) were of low socio-economic status. Cervical cerclage was employed in all the patients, although ultrasound investigation was not employed in 65.8% of them. Diagnosis of cervical incompetence still relies on history of previous pregnancy losses, with the standard transvaginal ultrasound relatively unemployed. There is need to intensify investigations for this condition, standardize the indications for cerclage, and diversify management to other newer modalities. Résumé Le traitement de l’insuffisance cervicale par le cerclage n'a pas encore été standardisé, étant donné que son diagnostic n'est pas uniformément accepté. Son diagnostic en Afrique, est principalement basé sur les antécédents obstétricaux de pertes de grossesse, alors que dans les centres développés, le diagnostic échographique est utilisé. Notre objectif était d'évaluer cette pratique en termes de caractéristiques des patientes, le processus de diagnostic et de gestion à l'H pital National Kenyatta, à Nairobi, au Kenya. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective descriptive qui a duré 9 ans. Les questionnaires précon us ont été utilisés pour recueillir des données sur la situation sociodémographique des patientes, la présentation, les facteurs de risque, le diagnostic et la gestion d'insuffisance cervicale. Le Test du chi carré et le test de t de l’étudiant ont été utilisés pour corréler les variables. Un total de 199 patientes ont été traitées pour l’insuffisance cervicale, l'age moyen des patientes étant de 27,97. 87,4% des patientes (p = 0,02) se trouvaient dans la catégorie des 20 à 35 ans. La plupart des patientes (60,1%) étaient de faible statut socioéconomique. Le cerclage du col utérin a été utilisé chez toutes les patientes, bien qu’on n’ait pas mené une enquête échographique auprès des 65,8% d'entre elles. Le diagnostic d'insuffisance ce
Higher-Level Targets for Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity Should Focus on Regional Capacity for Effective Trade-Offs
Daniel P. Faith
Diversity , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/d3010001
Abstract: The Convention on Biological Diversity has adopted 20 targets as part of its new Strategic Plan. Perrings et al. have proposed that such targets should focus solely on critical ecosystem services. Such a strategy may neglect the need to conserve overall biodiversity and corresponding option values. It also may neglect the important role of ecosystem services in systematic conservation planning strategies that seek effective regional trade-offs and synergies among different needs of society. Parties to the Convention have an opportunity to address not only conventional lists of individual targets for ecosystem services and overall biodiversity, but also higher-level targets that focus directly on how well the country achieves—and maintains its capacity to achieve—effective trade-offs among different needs of society.
Population Growth, Environmental Degradation and Human Health in Nigeria
Sajini Faith Iwejingi
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/pjssci.2011.187.191
Abstract: As the human population doubles every few decades so, its impact on the environment increases at a faster rate. Humans cannot escape the law of population growth when population increases, the resources required for its sustenance also increases therefore man has made a remarkable impact on the environment primarily through the use of natural resources and production of wastes. This study examines the impact of population growth in Nigeria on the environment and the attendant result on human health. Rapid human population growth has been identified as underlying environmental problems in the country. The study recommends measures to limit rapidly growing population as well as strategies to reduce the negative impact of human activities on the environment.
Pronominal Group as Signals of Authority, Opposition and Solidarity in the Poetry of Two Modern African Poets
Ibhawaegbele Faith Obiageri
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320120403.3400
Abstract: This paper examines the use of pronominal forms as signals of authority, opposition and solidarity in Obu Udeozo's Excursions and Cyclone and Tanure Ojaide’s The Fate of Vultures. The pronominal group expresses the role relationship between and among participants in a discourse. These poets use pronominal forms specifically to identify the various ‘speaking voices’ in their poetry collections and to reveal their ideological positions. They also use these pronominal forms to enhance the ideational content of their poems. The issues raised in the poems and the events and situations described concern ‘us’, ‘you’ and ‘me’. My examination of the exploitation of personal forms in this paper derives from the need to use the tools of linguistics (stylistics) to explicate the poetry collections already highlighted. It is also motivated by the fact that despite their simplistic nature, the pronominal forms are meaning-signalling devices in the poetry collections. In our adoption of a linguistic approach, we are motivated by the opinion that linguistics can be a useful aid to the analysis of texts and can complement the efforts of literary criticism. Key words: Solidarity; Opposition; Authority; Pronominal; Group and language
Fuzzy - Expert System for Cost Benefit Analysis of Enterprise Information Systems: A Framework
Faith –Michael E. Uzoka
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: Enterprise Information Systems (EIS) are collections of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to manage organizational information resources, ultimately enhancing decision making, and strategic advantage. One of the key issues in the acquisition and utilization of EIS is the determination of the value of investment in such systems. Traditional capital budgeting models such as NPV, IRR, payback period, and profitability index focus mainly on quantifiable variables. However, there are many intangible variables that make the use of entirely quantitative measures incomplete and less inclusive. The high level of impact of information systems (IS) on the entire organizational strategy and the information intensity of IS makes the use of such traditional methods less practicable. Attempts have been made to overcome these shortcomings by utilizing other techniques such as the real options model, goal programming model, knowledge value model and intelligent techniques. This paper proposes the adoption of a hybrid intelligent technique (fuzzy-expert system) in carrying out a cost benefit analysis of EIS investment. The study takes high cognizance of intangible variables and vagueness / imprecision in human group decision making that requires a good level of consensus.
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