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innovative solution to design phase and quadrature pulsed coupled oscillators
systems through electromagnetic waveguides is described in
this paper. Each oscillator is constituted by an LC differential resonator
refilled through a couple of current pulse generator circuits. The phase and
quadrature coupling between the two differential oscillators is achieved using
delayed replicas of generated fundamentals from a resonator as driving signal
of pulse generator injecting in the other resonator. The delayed replicas are
obtained by microstrip-based delay-lines. A 2.4 - 2.5 GHz VCO has been
implemented in a 150 nm RF CMOS process. Simulations showed at 1 MHz offset a
phase noise of -139.9 dBc/Hz and a
FOM of -189.1 dB.
Effective cancellation of noise and preservation of color/structural information are features of paramount importance for any filter devoted to impulse noise removal in color images. In this paper novel full-reference tools for analyzing the behavior of this family of filters are presented. The proposed approach is based on the classification of color errors into two main classes that separately take into account the inaccuracy in removing noise pulses and the filtering distortion. The distortion errors are then classified into two subclasses for a deeper analysis of the filtering behavior. Computer simulations show that the proposed method gives more accurate results than using other measures of filtering performance in the literature. Furthermore, the method can easily yield the spatial location of the different filtering features in the image.
Special Relativity sets tight constraints on the form of the possible relations between the four-momentum of a particle and the wave four-vector. In fact, we demonstrate that there is just one way, according to Special Relativity, to relate the energy and the momentum of a corpuscle with the characteristics of a plane wave, frequency and wave vector, if the momentum has to flow in the same direction of the wave propagation: the laws must be of direct proportionality like de Broglie and Planck-Einstein equations.