OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721




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2015 ( 94 )

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匹配条件: “Fabrice Rappaport” ,找到相关结果约1323条。
Gene Transposition Causing Natural Variation for Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana
Daniela Vlad,Fabrice Rappaport,Matthieu Simon,Olivier Loudet
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000945
Abstract: A major challenge in biology is to identify molecular polymorphisms responsible for variation in complex traits of evolutionary and agricultural interest. Using the advantages of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model species, we sought to identify new genes and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation for shoot growth using quantitative genetic strategies. More quantitative trait loci (QTL) still need be resolved to draw a general picture as to how and where in the pathways adaptation is shaping natural variation and the type of molecular variation involved. Phenotypic variation for shoot growth in the Bur-0 × Col-0 recombinant inbred line set was decomposed into several QTLs. Nearly-isogenic lines generated from the residual heterozygosity segregating among lines revealed an even more complex picture, with major variation controlled by opposite linked loci and masked by the segregation bias due to the defective phenotype of SG3 (Shoot Growth-3), as well as epistasis with SG3i (SG3-interactor). Using principally a fine-mapping strategy, we have identified the underlying gene causing phenotypic variation at SG3: At4g30720 codes for a new chloroplast-located protein essential to ensure a correct electron flow through the photosynthetic chain and, hence, photosynthesis efficiency and normal growth. The SG3/SG3i interaction is the result of a structural polymorphism originating from the duplication of the gene followed by divergent paralogue's loss between parental accessions. Species-wide, our results illustrate the very dynamic rate of duplication/transposition, even over short periods of time, resulting in several divergent—but still functional—combinations of alleles fixed in different backgrounds. In predominantly selfing species like Arabidopsis, this variation remains hidden in wild populations but is potentially revealed when divergent individuals outcross. This work highlights the need for improved tools and algorithms to resolve structural variation polymorphisms using high-throughput sequencing, because it remains challenging to distinguish allelic from paralogous variation at this scale.
Determination of Bolus Dielectric Constant for Optimum Coupling of Microwaves through Skin for Breast Cancer Imaging
Carey Rappaport
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/359582
Abstract: We find the complex dielectric constant of the bolus liquid with the best microwave impedance match to skin-covered fatty breast tissue. The real dielectric constant and conductivity of the ideal medium are determined by minimizing the magnitude of the reflection coefficient from the two-interface frequency-dependent system, using published measured skin and breast fat dielectric characteristics in the 400 MHz to 10 GHz frequency range. Error bounds are provided to indicate the coupling degradation when using real, nonideal media for the bolus liquid. Two frequency regimes are identified. Below 6.45 GHz, conventional liquid mixtures can approach the optimal coupling permittivity, but the reflection magnitudes for these best cases are high. Above 6.45 GHz, perfect coupling is possible, but only for impractically high values of bolus dielectric constant and loss.
Buena sangre y hábitos espa?oles: repensando a Alonso de Silva y Diego de Torres
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura , 2012,
Abstract: this article explores the porous border between mestizos and indigenous people in the sixteenth-century new kingdom of granada by inquiring into how mestizo aspirants to muisca cacicazgos presented themselves and were characterized by their adversaries in their negotiation of relationships with the spanish crown, local encomenderos, and their own subjects. the reflection focuses particularly on two men: don alonso de silva, cacique of tibasosa and don diego de torres, cacique of turmequé, both of whom were sons of women belonging to muisca succession lines, but were raised in their spanish paternal households, received an education befitting that of elite mestizos, and used their extensive command of legal literacy to achieve chiefly status. their aspirations ran counter to those of other elite mestizos of the time, who sought social acceptance in the spanish society of santafé and tunja. in contrast, these two consistently described themselves as privileged candidates for elite indigenous status by resorting to markers of christian and iberian identity.
Quem é mesti?o? Decifrando a mistura racial no Novo Reino de Granada, séculos XVI e XVII
Rappaport, Joanne;
Varia Historia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-87752009000100003
Abstract: most of the literature on racial mixing in colonial spanish america takes at face value the categories - indio, negro, mestizo, mulato, espa?ol - that appear in archival documents. using a series of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century cases from the nuevo reino de granada (today, colombia), this article explores the instability of these categories, particularly of the intermediate ones, and the extent to which they are subject to social negotiation.
The Modal View of Economic Models
Steven Rappaport
Philosophica , 1989,
Three Thousand Sky-Scrapers Три тысячи небоскребов
Alexander Rappaport
Project Baikal , 2006,
Sculpture Versus Architecture? Скульптура против архитектуры?
Alexander Rappaport
Project Baikal , 2007,
Abstract: Many critics consider Richard Serra the leading sculptor of the 20th century. He is famous not only for inventing something new in sculpture (abstract sculpture compositions existed before him, having been opened by constructivist vanguard of the beginning of the 20th century). Material selections by Vladimir Tatlin and sculptures by Osip Tsadkin, as well as compositions by Henry Moor appeared before Serra. Serra is famous for transferring his works' accent from the works as they are, which could be installed in any place, to their environment. That is he saw in the sculpture a key to understanding the urban space. His crude metal sheets and profiles, rectangular and curvilinear, exceeding regular scale of sculpture, come closer to architecture. Richard Serra places them near architectural constructions as checkpoints of intermediate scale category of space located between so-called street furniture – lamp posts, stalls, fountains and benches – and buildings, especially huge modern ones. But the matter is not only in the scale. Serra's sculptures are not only abstract compositions that harmoniously add to the space with their spacious scale. They have some mystery, some implicit sense appearing before a pedestrian as an enigma. Their mystique opposes both street furniture and architecture. But first of all it opposes the historical sculpture with its enigma always overshadowed by historical or biographical topic. Krylov's sculpture in the Summer Garden or Minin and Pozharsky's monument on the Red Square do not strike us, because we know that those monuments are erected IN COMMEMORATION of prominent people, as fellow citizens' tribute to their great contribution to the national history. But the crude metal sheets welded at different angles – what are they for? Who needs them? As an art critic, Edward Goldman, said, fame came to Richard Serra in 1989, when the sculpture composition Tilted Arc erected eight years before it was demolished by request of the public, that did not understand its sense and was exasperated with the obvious absence of this sense. However, Serra sees his sculpture's sense not only in its filling a scale gap in the environment, but also in its instigating a man to think and to concern the environment and the space as a problem, linking this problem with a problem of human's being. Is there any other way to explain the public's indignation? Serra's sculpture compositions do not obstruct pedestrian flow and do not offend anyone's dignity or memory, do they? They act as Zen koans, as if mutely asking a spectator about the sense. Not k
China as Anticipation Китай как предчувствие
Alexander Rappaport
Project Baikal , 2006,
Architectural Education as a Field of a New Cult Архитектурное образование – сфера нового культа
Alexander Rappaport
Project Baikal , 2010,
Abstract: Пожалуй, нет темы более туманной, чем архитектурное образование. История архитектуры свидетельствует, что чем меньше было архитектурного образования, тем лучше была архитектура. Едва ли в Древнем Египте существовало какое-то особое архитектурное образование. Фидий не был ни дипломированным архитектором, ни кандидатом, ни докто- ром архитектуры. Средневековые каменщики, построившие готические соборы, тоже не отличались познаниями в математике и физике, которыми владеют ныне выпускники МАРХИ. Что же из этого следует?
The Architectural School of the Future Архитектурная школа будущего
Alexander Rappaport
Project Baikal , 2013,

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