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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5726 matches for " Fabio Zandanel "
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Constraints on diffuse gamma-ray emission from structure formation processes in the Coma cluster
Fabio Zandanel,Shin'ichiro Ando
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu324
Abstract: We analyze 5-year (63 months) data of the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi satellite from the Coma galaxy cluster in the energy range between 100 MeV and 100 GeV. The likelihood analyses are performed with several templates motivated by models predicting gamma-ray emission due to structure formation processes. We find no excess emission and derive the most stringent constraints to date on the Coma cluster above 100 MeV, and on the tested scenarios in general. The upper limits on the integral flux range from 10^-10 to 10^-9 cm^-2s^-1, and are stringent enough to challenge different scenarios. We find that the acceleration efficiency of cosmic ray protons and electrons at shocks must be below approximately 15% and 1%, respectively. Additionally, we argue that the proton acceleration efficiency should be lower than 5% in order to be consistent with radio data. This, however, relays on magnetic field estimates in the cluster. In particular, this implies that the contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background due to gamma-rays from structure formation processes in clusters of galaxies is negligible, below 1%. Finally, we discuss future detectability prospects for Astro-H, Fermi after 10-yr of operation, and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.
Inverse-Compton Emission from Clusters of Galaxies: Predictions for ASTRO-H
Richard Bartels,Fabio Zandanel,Shin'ichiro Ando
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525758
Abstract: The intra-cluster medium of several galaxy clusters hosts large-scale regions of diffuse synchrotron radio emission, known as radio halos and relics, which demonstrate the presence of magnetic fields and relativistic electrons in clusters. These relativistic electrons should also emit X-rays through inverse-Compton scattering off of cosmic microwave background photons. The detection of such a non-thermal X-ray component, together with the radio measurement, would permit to clearly separate the magnetic field from the relativistic electron distribution as the inverse-Compton emission is independent from the magnetic field in the cluster. However, non-thermal X-rays have not been conclusively detected from any cluster of galaxies so far. In this paper, for the first time, we model the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission of all clusters hosting radio halos and relics for which the spectral index can be determined. We provide constraints on the volume-average magnetic field by comparing with current X-ray measurements. We then estimate the maximum volume-average magnetic field that will allow the detection of inverse-Compton hard X-rays by the ASTRO-H satellite. We found that several clusters are good targets for ASTRO-H to detect their inverse-Compton emission, in particular that corresponding to radio relics, and propose a list of promising targets for which ASTRO-H can test $\ge1$~$\mu$G magnetic fields. We conclude that future hard X-ray observations by the already-operating NuSTAR and the soon-to-be-launched ASTRO-H definitely have the potential to shed light on the long-sought non-thermal hard-X-ray emission in clusters of galaxies.
A Phenomenological Model for the Intracluster Medium that matches X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations
Fabio Zandanel,Christoph Pfrommer,Francisco Prada
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2196
Abstract: Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters are still challenged to produce a model for the intracluster medium that matches all aspects of current X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations. To facilitate such comparisons with future simulations and to enable realistic cluster population studies for modeling e.g., non-thermal emission processes, we construct a phenomenological model for the intracluster medium that is based on a representative sample of observed X-ray clusters. We create a mock galaxy cluster catalog based on the large collisionless N-body simulation MultiDark, by assigning our gas density model to each dark matter cluster halo. Our clusters are classified as cool-core and non cool-core according to a dynamical disturbance parameter. We demonstrate that our gas model matches the various observed Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray scaling relations as well as the X-ray luminosity function, thus enabling to build a reliable mock catalog for present surveys and forecasts for future experiments. In a companion paper, we apply our catalogs to calculate non-thermal radio and gamma-ray emission of galaxy clusters. We make our cosmologically complete multi-frequency mock catalogs for the (non-)thermal cluster emission at different redshifts publicly and freely available online through the MultiDark database (www.multidark.org).
On the Physics of Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters: Scaling Relations and Luminosity Functions
Fabio Zandanel,Christoph Pfrommer,Francisco Prada
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2250
Abstract: The underlying physics of giant and mini radio halos in galaxy clusters is still an open question. We find that mini halos (such as in Perseus and Ophiuchus) can be explained by radio-emitting electrons that are generated in hadronic cosmic ray (CR) interactions with protons of the intracluster medium. By contrast, the hadronic model either fails to explain the extended emission of giant radio halos (as in Coma at low frequencies) or would require a flat CR profile, which can be realized through outward streaming and diffusion of CRs (in Coma and A2163 at 1.4 GHz). We suggest that a second, leptonic component could be responsible for the missing flux in the outer parts of giant halos within a new hybrid scenario and we describe its possible observational consequences. To study the hadronic emission component of the radio halo population statistically, we use a cosmological mock galaxy cluster catalog built from the MultiDark simulation. Because of the properties of CR streaming and the different scalings of the X-ray luminosity (L_X) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux (Y) with gas density, our model can simultaneously reproduce the observed bimodality of radio-loud and radio-quiet clusters at the same L_X as well as the unimodal distribution of radio-halo luminosity versus Y; thereby suggesting a physical solution to this apparent contradiction. We predict radio halo emission down to the mass scale of galaxy groups, which highlights the unique prospects for low-frequency radio surveys (such as the LOFAR Tier 1 survey) to increase the number of detected radio halos by at least an order of magnitude.
The role of the eROSITA all-sky survey in searches for sterile neutrino dark matter
Fabio Zandanel,Christoph Weniger,Shin'ichiro Ando
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/060
Abstract: We investigate for the first time the potential of angular auto- and cross-correlation power spectra in identifying sterile neutrino dark matter in the cosmic X-ray background. We take as reference the performance of the soon-to-be-launched eROSITA satellite. The main astrophysical background sources against sterile neutrino decays are active galactic nuclei, galaxies powered by X-ray binaries, and clusters of galaxies. While sterile neutrino decays are always subdominant in the auto-correlation power spectra, they can be efficiently enhanced when cross-correlating with tracers of the dark matter distribution such as galaxies in the 2MASS catalogues. We show that the planned four-years eROSITA all-sky survey will provide a large enough photon statistics to potentially yield very stringent constraints on the decay lifetime, enabling to firmly test the recently claimed 3.56-keV X-ray line found towards several clusters and galaxies and its decaying dark matter interpretation. However, we also show that in order to fully exploit the potential of eROSITA for dark matter searches, it is vital to overcome the shot-noise limitations inherent to galaxy catalogues as tracers for the dark matter distribution.
Tomographic Constraints on High-Energy Neutrinos of Hadronuclear Origin
Shin'ichiro Ando,Irene Tamborra,Fabio Zandanel
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.221101
Abstract: Mounting evidence suggests that the TeV-PeV neutrino flux detected by the IceCube telescope has mainly an extragalactic origin. If such neutrinos are primarily produced by a single class of astrophysical sources via hadronuclear ($pp$) interactions, a similar flux of gamma-ray photons is expected. For the first time, we employ tomographic constraints to pinpoint the origin of the IceCube neutrino events by analyzing recent measurements of the cross correlation between the distribution of GeV gamma rays, detected by the Fermi satellite, and several galaxy catalogs in different redshift ranges. We find that the corresponding bounds on the neutrino luminosity density are up to one order of magnitude tighter than those obtained by using only the spectrum of the gamma-ray background, especially for sources with mild redshift evolution. In particular, our method excludes any hadronuclear source with a spectrum softer than $E^{-2.1}$ as a main component of the neutrino background, if its evolution is slower than $(1+z)^3$. Starburst galaxies, if able to accelerate and confine cosmic rays efficiently, satisfy both spectral and tomographic constraints.
On the Physics of Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters: Scaling Relations and Luminosity Functions
Fabio Zandanel,Christoph Pfrommer,Francisco Prada
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The underlying physics of giant radio halos and mini halos in galaxy clusters is still an open question, which becomes more pressing with the growing number of detections. In this paper, we explore the possibility that radio-emitting electrons are generated in hadronic cosmic ray (CR) proton interactions with ambient thermal protons of the intra-cluster medium. Our CR model derives from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of cluster formation and additionally accounts for CR transport in the form of CR streaming and diffusion. This opens the possibility of changing the radio halo luminosity by more than an order of magnitude on a dynamical time scale. We build a mock galaxy cluster catalog from the large MultiDark N-body LCDM simulation by adopting a phenomenological gas density model for each cluster based on X-ray measurements that matches Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray scaling relations and luminosity function. Using magnetic field strength estimates from Faraday rotation measure studies, our model successfully reproduces the observed surface brightness profiles of giant radio halos (Coma, A2163) as well as radio mini-halos (Perseus, Ophiuchus), while obeying upper limits on the gamma-ray emission in these clusters. Our model is also able to simultaneously reproduce the observed bimodality of radio-loud and radio-quiet clusters at the same L_X as well as the unimodal distribution of radio-halo luminosity versus the SZ flux Y; thereby suggesting a physical solution to this apparent contradiction. For a plausible fraction of 10% radio-loud clusters, our model matches the NVSS radio-halo luminosity function. Constructing an analytical radio-halo luminosity function, we demonstrate the unique prospects for low-frequency radio surveys (such as the LOFAR Tier 1 survey) to detect ~3500 radio halos back to redshift two and to probe the underlying physics of radio halos. [abridged]
High-energy gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds from clusters of galaxies and radio constraints
Fabio Zandanel,Irene Tamborra,Stefano Gabici,Shin'ichiro Ando
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201425249
Abstract: Cosmic-ray protons accumulate for cosmological times in clusters of galaxies as their typical radiative and diffusive escape times are longer than the Hubble time. Their hadronic interactions with protons of the intra-cluster medium generate secondary electrons, gamma-rays and neutrinos. We here estimate the contribution from clusters to the diffuse gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds. We model the cluster population by means of their mass function, using a phenomenological luminosity-mass relation applied to all clusters, as well as a detailed semi-analytical model. Additionally, we consider observationally-motivated values for the cluster magnetic field. This is a crucial parameter since the observed radio counts due to synchrotron emission by secondary electrons need to be respected. For a choice of parameters respecting all current constraints, and assuming a spectral index of -2, we find that hadronic interactions in clusters contribute by less than 10% to the extragalactic gamma-ray background observed by Fermi and to the IceCube flux. They account for less than 1% for spectral indices <=-2. The neutrino flux observed by IceCube can be reproduced without violating constraints only if a very hard (and speculative) spectral index >-2 is adopted. However, this scenario is in tension with the IceCube data, which seem to suggest a spectral energy distribution of the neutrino flux that decreases with energy. In the case of proton-photon interactions, we find that very likely protons do not reach sufficiently high energies to produce neutrinos in clusters. We argue that our results are optimistic due to our assumptions, and that clusters of galaxies cannot give any relevant contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds. Finally, we find that the cluster contribution to the angular fluctuations in the gamma-ray background is subdominant, less than 10%. [abridged]
Neutrinos from Clusters of Galaxies and Radio Constraints
Fabio Zandanel,Irene Tamborra,Stefano Gabici,Shin'ichiro Ando
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Cosmic-ray (CR) protons can accumulate for cosmological times in clusters of galaxies. Their hadronic interactions with protons of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) generate secondary electrons, gamma-rays and high-energy neutrinos. In light of the high-energy neutrino events recently discovered by the IceCube observatory, we estimate the contribution from galaxy clusters to the diffuse gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds. For the first time, we consistently take into account the synchrotron emission generated by secondary electrons and require the clusters radio counts to be respected. For a choice of parameters respecting current constraints from radio to gamma-rays, and assuming a proton spectral index of -2, we find that hadronic interactions in clusters contribute by less than 10% to the IceCube flux, and much less to the total extragalactic gamma-ray background observed by Fermi. They account for less than 1% for spectral indexes <-2. The high-energy neutrino flux observed by IceCube can be reproduced without violating radio constraints only if a very hard (and speculative) spectral index >-2 is adopted. However, this scenario is in tension with the high-energy IceCube data, which seem to suggest a spectral energy distribution of the neutrino flux that decreases with the particle energy. We stress that our results are valid for all kind of sources injecting CR protons into the ICM, and that, while IceCube can test the most optimistic scenarios for spectral indexes >=-2.2 by stacking few nearby massive objects, clusters of galaxies cannot give any relevant contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds in any realistic scenario.
Observation of the Perseus cluster of galaxies with the MAGIC telescopes
Saverio Lombardi,Pierre Colin,Dorothee Hildebrand,Fabio Zandanel,Francisco Prada,for the MAGIC Collaboration,Christoph Pfrommer,Anders Pinzke
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The MAGIC telescopes performed a deep observation of the central region of the Perseus galaxy cluster in stereoscopic mode between October 2009 and February 2011. The nearly 85 hr of collected data (after quality selection) represent the deepest observation of a cluster of galaxies at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) ever. The survey resulted in the detection of VHE gamma-ray emissions from its central galaxy NGC 1275 and from the radio galaxy IC 310. In addition, the deep survey also permits for the first time to constrain emission models predicting VHE gamma-rays from cosmic-ray acceleration in the cluster. In this contribution we report the latest MAGIC results concerning these topics.
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