Abstract:
We study the effect of modifications to General Relativity on large scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the DGP model, and TeVeS theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective Dark Energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of Dark Energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the ISW effect, measured via the galaxy-CMB cross-correlation.

Abstract:
We perform cosmological N-body simulations of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, by solving the full non-linear equations of motion for the scalar degree of freedom in this model, the brane bending mode. While coupling universally to matter, the brane-bending mode has self-interactions that become important as soon as the density field becomes non-linear. These self-interactions lead to a suppression of the field in high-density environments, and restore gravity to General Relativity. The code uses a multi-grid relaxation scheme to solve the non-linear field equation in the quasi-static approximation. We perform simulations of a flat self-accelerating DGP model without cosmological constant. The results of the DGP simulations are compared with standard gravity simulations assuming the same expansion history, and with DGP simulations using the linearized equation for the brane bending mode. This allows us to isolate the effects of the non-linear self-couplings of the field which are noticeable already on quasi-linear scales. We present results on the matter power spectrum and the halo mass function, and discuss the behavior of the brane bending mode within cosmological structure formation. We find that, independently of CMB constraints, the self-accelerating DGP model is strongly constrained by current weak lensing and cluster abundance measurements.

Abstract:
We study the peculiar velocities of density peaks in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. Rare, high density peaks in the initial density field can be identified with tracers such as galaxies and clusters in the evolved matter distribution. The distribution of relative velocities of peaks is derived in the large-scale limit using two different approaches based on a local biasing scheme. Both approaches agree, and show that halos still stream with the dark matter locally as well as statistically, i.e. they do not acquire a velocity bias. Nonetheless, even a moderate degree of (not necessarily local) non-Gaussianity induces a significant skewness (~ 0.1-0.2) in the relative velocity distribution, making it a potentially interesting probe of non-Gaussianity on intermediate to large scales. We also study two-point correlations in redshift-space. The well-known Kaiser formula is still a good approximation on large scales, if the Gaussian halo bias is replaced with its (scale-dependent) non-Gaussian generalization. However, there are additional terms not encompassed by this simple formula which become relevant on smaller scales (k >~ 0.01 h/Mpc). Depending on the allowed level of non-Gaussianity, these could be of relevance for future large spectroscopic surveys.

Abstract:
Differences in masses inferred from dynamics, such as velocity dispersions or X-rays, and those inferred from lensing are a generic prediction of modified gravity theories. Viable models however must include some non-linear mechanism to restore General Relativity (GR) in dense environments, which is necessary to pass Solar System constraints on precisely these deviations. In this paper, we study the dynamics within virialized structures in the context of two modified gravity models, f(R) gravity and DGP. The non-linear mechanisms to restore GR, which f(R) and DGP implement in very different ways, have a strong impact on the dynamics in bound objects; they leave distinctive signatures in the dynamical mass-lensing mass relation as a function of mass and radius. We present measurements from N-body simulations of f(R) and DGP, as well as semi-analytical models which match the simulation results to surprising accuracy in both cases. The semi-analytical models are useful for making the connection to observations. Our results confirm that the environment- and scale-dependence of the modified gravity effects have to be taken into account when confronting gravity theories with observations of dynamics in galaxies and clusters.

Abstract:
We introduce a cosmological model based on the normal branch of DGP braneworld gravity with a smooth dark energy component on the brane. The expansion history in this model is identical to LambdaCDM, thus evading all geometric constraints on the DGP cross-over scale r_c. This model can serve as a first approximation to more general braneworld models whose cosmological solutions have not been obtained yet. We study the formation of large scale structure in this model in the linear and non-linear regime using N-body simulations for different values of r_c. The simulations use the code presented in (F.S., arXiv:0905.0858) and solve the full non-linear equation for the brane-bending mode in conjunction with the usual gravitational dynamics. The brane-bending mode is attractive rather than repulsive in the DGP normal branch, hence the sign of the modified gravity effects is reversed compared to those presented in arXiv:0905.0858. We compare the simulation results with those of ordinary LambdaCDM simulations run using the same code and initial conditions. We find that the matter power spectrum in this model shows a characteristic enhancement peaking at k ~ 0.7 h/Mpc. We also find that the abundance of massive halos is significantly enhanced. Other results presented here include the density profiles of dark matter halos, and signatures of the brane-bending mode self-interactions (Vainshtein mechanism) in the simulations. Independently of the expansion history, these results can be used to place constraints on the DGP model and future generalizations through their effects on the growth of cosmological structure.

Abstract:
Primordial non-Gaussianity, in particular the coupling of modes with widely different wavelengths, can have a strong impact on the large-scale clustering of tracers through a scale-dependent bias with respect to matter. We demonstrate that the standard derivation of this non-Gaussian scale-dependent bias is in general valid only in the extreme squeezed limit of the primordial bispectrum, i.e. for clustering over very large scales. We further show how the treatment can be generalized to describe the scale-dependent bias on smaller scales, without making any assumptions on the nature of tracers apart from a dependence on the small-scale fluctuations within a finite region. If the leading scale-dependent bias \Delta b \propto k^{\alpha}, then the first subleading term will scale as k^{\alpha+2}. This correction typically becomes relevant as one considers clustering over scales k >~ 0.01 h Mpc^{-1}.

Abstract:
We show how the peak-background split can be generalized to predict the effect of non-local primordial non-Gaussianity on the clustering of halos. Our approach is applicable to arbitrary primordial bispectra. We show that the scale-dependence of halo clustering predicted in the peak-background split (PBS) agrees with that of the local-biasing model on large scales. On smaller scales, k >~ 0.01 h/Mpc, the predictions diverge, a consequence of the assumption of separation of scales in the peak-background split. Even on large scales, PBS and local biasing do not generally agree on the amplitude of the effect outside of the high-peak limit. The scale dependence of the biasing - the effect that provides strong constraints to the local-model bispectrum - is far weaker for the equilateral and self-ordering-scalar-field models of non-Gaussianity. The bias scale dependence for the orthogonal and folded models is weaker than in the local model (~ 1/k), but likely still strong enough to be constraining. We show that departures from scale-invariance of the primordial power spectrum may lead to order-unity corrections, relative to predictions made assuming scale-invariance - to the non-Gaussian bias in some of these non-local models for non-Gaussianity. An Appendix shows that a non-local model can produce the local-model bispectrum, a mathematical curiosity we uncovered in the course of this investigation.

Abstract:
We derive general covariant expressions for the six independent observable modes of distortion of ideal standard rulers in a perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. Our expressions are gauge-invariant and valid on the full sky. These six modes are most naturally classified in terms of their rotational properties on the sphere, yielding two scalars, two vector (spin-1), and two tensor (spin-2) components. One scalar corresponds to the magnification, while the spin-2 components correspond to the shear. The vector components allow for a polar/axial decomposition analogous to the E/B-decomposition for the shear. Scalar modes do not contribute to the axial (B-)vector, opening a new avenue to probing tensor modes. Our results apply, but are not limited to, the distortion of correlation functions (of the CMB, 21cm emission, or galaxies) as well as to weak lensing shear and magnification, all of which can be seen as methods relying on "standard rulers".

Abstract:
The B-(curl-)mode of the correlation of galaxy ellipticities (shear) can be used to detect a stochastic gravitational wave background, such as that predicted by inflation. In this paper, we derive the tensor mode contributions to shear from both gravitational lensing and intrinsic alignments, using the gauge-invariant, full-sky results of arXiv:1204.3625. We find that the intrinsic alignment contribution, calculated using the linear alignment model, is larger than the lensing contribution by an order of magnitude or more, if the alignment strength for tensor modes is of the same order as for scalar modes. This contribution also extends to higher multipoles. These results make the prospects for probing tensor modes using galaxy surveys less pessimistic than previously thought, though still very challenging.

Abstract:
Observed angular positions and redshifts of large-scale structure tracers such as galaxies are affected by gravitational waves through volume distortion and magnification effects. Thus, a gravitational wave background can in principle be probed through clustering statistics of large-scale structure. We calculate the observed angular clustering of galaxies in the presence of a gravitational wave background at linear order including all relativistic effects. For a scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves, the effects are most significant at the smallest multipoles (2 <= l <= 5), but typically suppressed by six or more orders of magnitude with respect to scalar contributions for currently allowed amplitudes of the inflationary gravitational wave background. We also discuss the most relevant second-order terms, corresponding to the distortion of tracer correlation functions by gravitational waves. These provide a natural application of the approach recently developed in arXiv:1204.3625.