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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 370 matches for " FM Tolo "
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In vitro anti-viral activity of aqueous extracts of Kenyan Carissa edulis Prunus africana and Melia azedarach against human cytomegalovirus.
FM Tolo, GM Rukunga, FW Muli, J Ochora, Y Eizuru, CN Muthaura, CW Kimani, GM Mungai, MW Kofi-Tsekpo
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants, Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae), Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm (Rosaceae) and Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) have shown significant reduction in the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts cells in vitro. Using the plaque inhibition assay for the determination of anti-viral activity, the HEL fibroblast cells cultured in 24 well plates were infected with 1 x 102 PFU 91S HCMV and treated with various concentrations of the extracts. The plaques formed were counted after 7 days incubation at 370C in 5% CO2 and the percent plaques inhibited were calculated against infected untreated control. The effective concentrations inhibiting plaque formation by 50% (EC50) was found between 40 to 80 μg/ml for all the extracts. The cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for each of the three extracts, by the trypan blue exclusion test, gave a safe therapeutic index. These results have demonstrated the potential anti-viral activities of the extracts of the three medicinal plants at non-cytotoxic concentrations. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 143-148
Decantando la metafísica descriptiva de Kant desde una perspectiva Analítica
EPISTEME , 2008,
Abstract: although the critique of pure reason is the most elaborate and precise sketch of the concepts that make up the experience of the world we actually have, it is also accepted that, beyond the frame lines, there are a number of suspicious or openly questionable strokes. one frequent objection among analytical philosophers, has to do with the psychological language that pervades the book from beginning to end. following a kantian-souled analytic as strawson, we will consider a ?linguistic? alternative to justify the necessary character of the concepts of space and time. we will conclude with useful and more acceptable answers to the problems that kant attempts to solve in the ?analogies of experience?, especially to the problem of causality.
Alternativas de Gestion Urbanística: Una mirada reflexiva hacia los últimos diez a os /Alternatives for urban management: A reflective look at the past ten years.
tolo, Miguel
Revista de Urbanismo , 2004, DOI: doi: 10.5354/0717-5051.2004.5086
Abstract: Existe abundante literatura acerca de la arquitectura y su relación con la ciudad. Sin embargo, pocos comprenden a la arquitectura como un instrumento para construirla, y casi nadie entiende su rara mezcla de poder e impotencia. Así, la construcción de la ciudad, aparece como una compleja relación entre distintos agentes, cuyas acciones generan una metástasis en el tejido urbano. Conocer la manera de actuación de estos agentes y la organización de las políticas del Estado, permite encontrar elementos para incidir, persiguiendo efectos que redunden en beneficios para la ciudad y sociedad en general./ There is a lot of literature about architecture and its relation with the city, however, there are few people who understand architecture like an instrument for constructing a city, and almost nobody understands the architecture’s paradoxical mixture of power and inability. So, the construction of a city appears like a complex relation among different factors, whose actions generate a metastasis in the urban frame. To know the way of these factors performance, and the organization of the State-policies, allow us to find elements to operate on its design, following effects that give advantages to the city and society in general.
Changing Trends of Natural Resources Degradation in Kagera Basin: Case Study of Kagera Sub-Basin, Uganda  [PDF]
Casim Umba Tolo, Enock Amos Majule, Joseph Perfect
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.33014
Abstract: In many respects, river basins are extremely convenient natural resources management units and hence calls for an integrated approach in case of transboundary nature. Environmental resources in Kagera basin are under great threat due to demographic factors leading to wide spread environmental degradation. Land degradation and biodiversity loss are central issues in the basin, but the extent and severity of the degradation pressures are not yet clearly illustrated and their implications largely unknown. To date, natural resource mapping in Kagera basin has been based on isolated case studies for specific purposes and not much has been done in mapping resources and classification of resources degradation by remote sensing applications considering the whole basin. In this study, basin-wide mapping approach was adopted and hot spot areas associated with natural resources use in the basin identified and trends over time established. However, this paper presents results from Kagera River sub-basin, Uganda. Mapping exercise was done by using landsat images and aerial photos of Kagera basin covering the years 1984-2002. Overall, bushland in Kagera sub-basin, Uganda increased by 78% and woodland cover showed mere 6% gain; but a 53% decrease in open woodland sub-type and 29% decrease in closed woodland. Significant shift occurred in cultivation with herbaceous crops (mainly banana) from year 1984-2002 moving from east to west of Kagera sub-basin, Uganda representing 167% increase. Area occupied by permanent swamp decreased 31%. Over the same period, land cover change detection matrix indicates main land cover changes include conversion to bushland (59.34%) followed by conversion to grassland (7.29%) and cultivated land (7.16%), with only 24.19% of the land cover remaining unchanged. It is concluded that the observed changes are, a result of human-induced factors and show unsustainable utilization of natural resources as most of the changes make the land susceptible to degradation.
Reasearch on Personnel Management Problems in Industrial Enterprises Across Lithuania and the Ways to Suggest Innovative Solutions
Jurgita Meldiuk,Eligijus Tolo?ka
Science – Future of Lithuania , 2012,
Abstract: The article analyzes the issues of personnel management in Lithuanian industrial companies. Some personnel management methods are offered as a solution to the encountered problems. The findings of the paper are based on sociological research showing that the main question addressed to personnel management is a conflict between a supervisor and an employee, the loss of authority power and inability to solve problems.Article in Lithuanian
Climate Variability and Soil Nutrients Status along Altitudinal Gradient in Kigezi Highlands, Southwestern Uganda  [PDF]
Fortunate Twagiramaria, Casim Umba Tolo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.71001
Abstract: Kigezi highlands currently experiences changes in precipitation and temperature which modify the evaporation and soil moisture storage leading to alterations in runoff and other components of hydrological systems. Extreme events, like floods and droughts, are more intense and frequent. Furthermore heavy unpredictable rainfall has become frequent in the area, causing soil erosion and floods that destroy crops. Soil erosion is particularly a pressing challenge due to steep-sided hills leading to deterioration of soil nutrients including soil fertility. The unpredictable rains and droughts are attributed to climate change and variability. Consequently, climate change and variability have caused a significant impact on soil nutrients which have affected the agricultural productivity in the area. This paper presents findings of empirical study which explored the climate variability and soil nutrient status along altitudinal gradient. The paper particularly addresses key questions of: land management practices in the study area, nutrient availability and their effects on productivity of selected crops along altitudinal gradient in changing climate and variability. Independent variables such as topographic sequence along altitudinal gradient were evaluated against dependent variables such as yield harvests of selected grown crops and soil nutrients. Samples for crop yields were collected along transect of 0.5 kilometer using a quadrant of 4 × 4 m2 along attitudinal gradient. Soil samples were taken from selected plots at 0-20cm soil depth for nutrient analysis. Analysis of physical and chemical soil parameters was carried out on soil samples and these include: soil pH, soil organic content, total nitrogen, available soil phosphorous and exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K and Na). The study showed that middle parts of the transects had the highest concentration of most soil nutrients, probably because the middle parts could have been a deposition centre for some organic matter from the upper parts of the hills, and lower lying areas were being affected by floods that affects the decomposition of organic matter which is the main source of nutrients. Similarly, the middle parts of the study were the most fertile due to the high concentration of soil nutrient compositions. This indicates that crop yields were significantly affected by availability of soil nutrients along same gradient, attributable to the severity in soil erosion, nutrients leaching and farming practices.
Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxin extracted from the Masked Puffer fish Arothron diadematus
FM Fouda
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2005,
Abstract: Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxins extracted from the skin of the Masked Puffer fish (Arothron diadematus) from the Red Sea was evaluated using the Ehrlich ascite carcinoma tumor model in mice. Activity was assessed using a variety of cellular and liver biochemical parameters. Experimental mice were divided into 4 equal groups and injected intra-peritoneally with: saline (control); a sub-lethal dose of the toxin (1\10 LD50); 1 ml of a solution containing 2 million ECA cancer cells; and both (1 ml of a solution containing 2 million ECA cancer cells and a sub-lethal dose of toxin). Subsets of mice from each group were dissected after 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. Statistical analyses demonstrated the following: - the anti-tumor activity of the toxin increased lifespan by 46%, in addition to decreasing the number of tumor cells. - There was also an obvious cytotoxic effect of tetrodotoxins on cells, leading to apoptosis and a decrease in the volume of the peritoneal fluid. - The negative effects of tumor cells on the biochemical processes of liver was illustrated by an increased release of MDA & GGT enzymes and fat oxidation, and a decreased release of both enzymes and anti-oxidation agents. These negative effects were relieved for 6 days after injection by toxin.
Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social Structures
FM Peoples
African Anthropologist , 2008,
Abstract: This article analyzes the increasing spread of male-to-female harassment on the streets of Cairo. The aim is to first describe, define and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly to suggest some main social factors that provoked the development of the problem in the first place. This analysis takes a particular look at the correlation between street harassment and decades of structural and institutional changes which have had an impact on patriarchy as a defining system for the relationship between men and women. Historically in Egypt, patriarchy was not only fundamental for spatial and gendered organization within the private family sphere, but also for demarcating movement and participation in the public domain. In recent decades, high unemployment rates among men have undermined the conditions for upholding the patriarchal structure. This article argues that street harassment is symptomatic of high unemployment rates and of a consequentially weakening patriarchal system. It identifies the everyday spectacle of male-to-female street harassment as indicative of the frustration and difficulties in adhering to cultural ideals in a time of immense structural transformations. These transformations have impaired Egyptian males’ ability to fulfil their traditional role as economic providers, something which has resulted in their lack of achievement and demasculinization.
Contemporaneous Household Economic Well-being Response to Preschool Children Health Status in Cameroon
FM Baye
Botswana Journal of Economics , 2010,
Abstract: This paper estimates the contemporaneous response of household economic well-being to child health status and examines gender disparities in the response process, while controlling for other correlates. The paper uses the 2001 Cameroon household consumption survey and a range of survey-based regressions to generate results. Child health (weight-given age) correlates positively and significantly with household economic well-being, surrogated by log of household total expenditures per adult. This suggests evidence of spill-over effects of child health on household production. The effect of child health on well-being in households headed by women is more than that of their male counterparts. This indicates that with better child health, female heads are likely to exploit the resulting extra-time, budgetary savings and peace of mind at work to increase household well-being more effectively than their male counterparts. These results have implications for public interventions that promote child-day-care/pre-nursery school centres as an important enabler for women to use the extra-time at their disposal to participate additionally in labour market/training opportunities. Investing in reproductive health, especially child health, given the right conditions, can engender income growth, reduce poverty and initiate the process of accumulation of human capabilities.
Heritability of cooking time and water absorption traits in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using a North Carolina design II mating scheme
FM Elia
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2003,
Abstract: Estimation of genetic variances, heritabilities and estimations of response to selection of the cooking time and water absorption traits of Andean gene pool of dry bean seed Phaseolus vulgaris L. were done. General combining ability (GCA) i.e. GCA males and GCA females, and Specific combining ability (SCA) were estimated. The parents were crossed in a North Carolina mating design II and genetic analysis was made on the F3 and F4. Both male and female effectations within sets for the cooking trait in F3 and F4 were highly significant for the traits studied. Variances due to General combining ability (GCA) and Specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for the traits. It was observed that quick cooking parental genotypes produced progenies that were rapid cooking. This suggests that it is possible to select superior cooking progenies from crosses involving quick cooking parents due to the preponderance of the additive genetic variance in both F3 and F4. The high heritability and large magnitude in the range of the means of the cooking time trait indicates that population improvement is possible through recurrent selection. Estimation of response to selection indicated that genetic gain in selection was achievable. Partitioning among the entry source of variance for the water absorption into male and female effects within sets, their interactions, and the environment main effect indicated that the values were highly significant in both F3 and F4. The GCA male and GCA female effects had a much larger component of variance than the SCA. This indicates that additive genetic variances were important. The large magnitude in the heritability and the range in the mean of water absorption, and the estimated high response to selection indicate that the population can be improved through selection as shown by the presence of genetic gain in selection for the trait. It appears from the results obtained in this study that soaking dry beans before cooking is indicative of the amount of time required to render them eating soft. Hence water absorption can be used as a secondary selection index or indirect selection criteria for cooking time in a crop improvement program. In both traits studied, narrow sense heritability estimates were high (76% to 85 %). Tanz. J. Sci. Vol.29(1) 2003: 25-34
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