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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152996 matches for " FERNANDO; CISTERNAS V "
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Consecuencias de la tala maderera colonial en los bosques de alerce de Chiloé, sur de Chile (Siglos XVI-XIX)
TORREJóN G,FERNANDO; CISTERNAS V,MARCO; ALVIAL C,INGRID; TORRES R,LAURA;
Magallania (Punta Arenas) , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-22442011000200006
Abstract: during the spanish settlement processes the wood from the alerce tree was the main economical resource of chiloé (southern chile), generating an important commercial activity in the region. the development of the alerce timber and trading was studied based on historical-documentary analysis including data from the 16th to 19th century. special attention on the environmental effect was assessed based on the original alerce forest conditions. findings allow concluding that the colonial alerce removal it would have caused only a minor disturbance to the original forest, and it would have taken place within the most accessible alerzales (alerce patches) only, contrary to the situation observed at the beginning of the republic period when an enormous alerce exploitation was experimented. therefore, it has been proved that the disappearance and extinction of alerzalesin chiloé, during the colonial domain, did not occur.
Dermatomiositis refractaria asociada a neumonía en organización tratada con rituximab: Reporte de un caso
Yá?ez V,Jorge; Cisternas M,Marcela; Saldías H,Velia; Saldías P,Fernando;
Revista médica de Chile , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872009000100013
Abstract: chronic organizing pneumonia (cop) has often been reported as a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular diseases, mainly rheumatoid arhritis, but the association of cop and dermatomyositis (dm) has rarely been documented. we report a 55 year-old woman with well-documented dm and a cop. she was refractory to steroids and two other immunosuppressive agents therapy (cyclophosphamide and azathioprine). therefore, rituximab (2 x 1 g infusions) was used for treatment. during the following weeks her strength gradually increased while creatine kinase (ck), c reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate normalized. after 6 months, she had a relapse with increased muscle enzymes, fever and modérate muscle weakness. after a second course of rituximab (2 x 1 g infusions), the patient demonstrated a remarkable clinical response as indicated by an increase in muscle strength and moderate decline in creatine kinase levels. lung abnormalities resolved significantly on high resolution chest ct sean. thus, b-cell depletion therapy with rituximab used alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants may be a viable option in patients with polymyositis-dermatomyositis and pneumonia refractory to current therapies.
Consecuencias de la tala maderera colonial en los bosques de alerce de Chiloé, sur de Chile (Siglos XVI-XIX) Colonial timber felling consequences of the alerce forests in Chiloé, southern Chile (18TH and 19TH centuries)
FERNANDO TORREJóN G,MARCO CISTERNAS V,INGRID ALVIAL C,LAURA TORRES R
Magallania , 2011,
Abstract: Durante el proceso de colonización espa ola la madera de alerce se transformó en el principal recurso económico de Chiloé, generándose una importante actividad mercantil sustentada en la tala de dicha especie arbórea. Mediante un análisis histórico documental, que abarca desde el siglo XVI al XIX, se examinó la evolución de la tala y del comercio maderero local, evaluándose sus efectos ambientales sobre la cobertura boscosa original del territorio. Los resultados obtenidos permiten constatar que la tala colonial del alerce habría generado sólo una moderada alteración de los alerzales más accesibles, en comparación a lo ocurrido en los inicios de la República tras la notoria intensificación de la explotación maderera. En consecuencia se descarta la tradicional idea de la desaparición o extinción de alerzales en Chiloé durante el dominio colonial. During the Spanish settlement processes the wood from the Alerce tree was the main economical resource of Chiloé (Southern Chile), generating an important commercial activity in the region. The development of the Alerce timber and trading was studied based on historical-documentary analysis including data from the 16th to 19th century. Special attention on the environmental effect was assessed based on the original Alerce forest conditions. Findings allow concluding that the colonial Alerce removal it would have caused only a minor disturbance to the original forest, and it would have taken place within the most accessible Alerzales (Alerce patches) only, contrary to the situation observed at the beginning of the republic period when an enormous Alerce exploitation was experimented. Therefore, it has been proved that the disappearance and extinction of Alerzalesin Chiloé, during the colonial domain, did not occur.
Dermatomiositis refractaria asociada a neumonía en organización tratada con rituximab: Reporte de un caso Refractory dermatomyositis associated with chronic organizing pneumonia treated with rituximab: Report of one case
Jorge Yá?ez V,Marcela Cisternas M,Velia Saldías H,Fernando Saldías P
Revista médica de Chile , 2009,
Abstract: Chronic organizing pneumonia (COP) has often been reported as a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular diseases, mainly rheumatoid arhritis, but the association of COP and dermatomyositis (DM) has rarely been documented. We report a 55 year-old woman with well-documented DM and a COP. She was refractory to steroids and two other immunosuppressive agents therapy (cyclophosphamide and azathioprine). Therefore, rituximab (2 x 1 g infusions) was used for treatment. During the following weeks her strength gradually increased while creatine kinase (CK), C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate normalized. After 6 months, she had a relapse with increased muscle enzymes, fever and modérate muscle weakness. After a second course of rituximab (2 x 1 g infusions), the patient demonstrated a remarkable clinical response as indicated by an increase in muscle strength and moderate decline in creatine kinase levels. Lung abnormalities resolved significantly on high resolution chest CT sean. Thus, B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab used alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants may be a viable option in patients with polymyositis-dermatomyositis and pneumonia refractory to current therapies.
Territorial Planning for Coastal Zones in Chile: The Need for Geographical-Environmental and Natural Risk Indicators for Spatial Decision Support Systems  [PDF]
Fernando Pe?a-Cortés, Daniel Rozas-Vásquez, Gonzalo Rebolledo, Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich, Miguel Escalona, Enrique Hauenstein, Luis Vargas-Chacoff, Carlos Bertrán, Jaime Tapia, Marco Cisternas
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46A2003
Abstract:

Coastal zones are very dynamic and fragile environments, constituting a landscape ever more heterogeneous, fragmented and with increasing levels of complexity due to the changing relationship between man and nature. Integrated coastal zone management therefore requires detailed knowledge of the system and its components, based—to a large extent—on technical and scientific information. However, the information generated must be in line with the political requirements necessary for decision-making and planning. Thus the use of indicators to give a simplified view of the many components of the territory, and at the same time to provide important information about patterns or trends, becomes a tool of the utmost importance. These indicators can be understood as measurable characteristics of the environment, which facilitate comprehension of the processes occurring at different scales and serve as a reference to inform the population and support decision-making. The aim of the present note is to demonstrate briefly the need to develop geographical-environmental and natural risk indicators to facilitate comprehension of the dynamic of spatial and temporal landscape patterns, particularly in coastal environments. This approach offers an historical summary of the natural, socio-economic and political processes which currently make up the territory, and which without doubt will continue to influence it in the future. At the same time, it is proposed that information should be integrated on the basis of this framework with a view to generating spatial decision support systems in a context of planning and integrated management of the coastal zones of Chile.

Impacto ambiental temprano en la Araucanía deducido de crónicas espa?olas y estudios historiográficos
TORREJON,FERNANDO; CISTERNAS,MARCO;
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92002003000300005
Abstract: chilean historiography states araucanian territory kept its pristine conditions until the republican period beginning. however, the presence of border military enclaves would have produced an early environmental disturbance in the araucania. to validate this hypothesis, a study of the spanish chronicles, old documents and historiographical studies was done. results indicate there was significant environmental disturbance on the araucanian ecological system, as a result of the intercultural contact during the arauco war and the spanish-creole settlement. native species extinction, exotic species introduction, mapuche crops substitution, natural resources mistreatment, land use changes, mapuche culture modification, and araucanian mortality and migration rising are among the environmental effects occurred under the area influenced by the forts.
Impacto ambiental temprano en la Araucanía deducido de crónicas espa olas y estudios historiográficos Early environmental impact in the Araucania territory inferred from Spanish chronicles and historiographical studies
FERNANDO TORREJON,MARCO CISTERNAS
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2003,
Abstract: La historiografía chilena sostiene que el territorio araucano mantuvo condiciones prístinas hasta los inicios del período republicano. Sin embargo, la presencia de enclaves militares espa oles fronterizos habría generado temprana intervención ambiental en la Araucanía. Para validar esta hipótesis, se realizó un análisis de las crónicas espa olas, documentación de la época y de estudios historiográficos. Los resultados indican que existió significativa perturbación ambiental sobre el sistema ecológico araucano producto del contacto intercultural durante la guerra de Arauco y el proceso de poblamiento hispano-criollo. Entre los efectos ambientales, generados en el área influenciada por los fuertes, se reconocen extinciones de especies endémicas, introducción de especies exóticas, sustitución de cultivos mapuches, explotación predatoria de los recursos naturales, cambios en el uso del suelo, modificación de la cultura mapuche y aumento de la mortalidad y migración araucana. Chilean historiography states Araucanian territory kept its pristine conditions until the republican period beginning. However, the presence of border military enclaves would have produced an early environmental disturbance in the Araucania. To validate this hypothesis, a study of the Spanish chronicles, old documents and historiographical studies was done. Results indicate there was significant environmental disturbance on the Araucanian ecological system, as a result of the intercultural contact during the Arauco war and the Spanish-Creole settlement. Native species extinction, exotic species introduction, Mapuche crops substitution, natural resources mistreatment, land use changes, Mapuche culture modification, and Araucanian mortality and migration rising are among the environmental effects occurred under the area influenced by the forts.
Alteraciones del paisaje ecológico araucano por la asimilación mapuche de la agroganadería hispano-mediterránea (siglos XVI y XVII)
TORREJóN,FERNANDO; CISTERNAS,MARCO;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2002000400008
Abstract: the bio-geographic characteristics of the temperate america favored the introduction and spreading of exotic plant and animal species that supported the hispanic-mediterranean farming model. the effects of this situation produced ecological alterations on the territories inhabited by indians without intense productive systems; as the araucanía case. through a historical and documental analysis this paper reports the main characteristics of the araucanian ecological landscape disruption process during the 16th and 17th centuries: (i) during the 16th century, the introduction of exotic species dislocated the mapuche economic system, (ii) both the relative araucanía pristine conditions and the warlike process, occurred between the 16th and 17th centuries, favored the introduction and spreading of the new species, (iii) during the 16th century, both natives and exotic species coexisted, but during the next century the exotic species predominated, and (iv) this preponderance would have produced a local extinction of native plants and animals, disrupting definitively the araucanian ecological landscape.
Alteraciones del paisaje ecológico araucano por la asimilación mapuche de la agroganadería hispano-mediterránea (siglos XVI y XVII) Araucanian ecological landscape disturbances by the mapuche assimilation of the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming (16th and 17th centuries)
FERNANDO TORREJóN,MARCO CISTERNAS
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002,
Abstract: Las características biogeográficas de la América templada favorecieron la introducción y propagación de especies animales y vegetales que sustentaron al modelo agroganadero hispano-mediterráneo. Los efectos de este fenómeno generaron alteraciones ecológicas, especialmente en los territorios habitados por aborígenes carentes de actividades productivas intensivas, como fue el caso de la Araucanía. Mediante un análisis histórico documental, la presente investigación reconoció las principales características del proceso de alteración del paisaje ecológico araucano entre los siglos XVI y XVII: (i) en el siglo XVI, la introducción de especies exóticas desarticuló el sistema económico mapuche, (ii) tanto la relativa pristinidad de la Araucanía como el proceso bélico de los siglos XVI y XVII, favorecieron la introducción y propagación de las nuevas especies, (iii) durante el siglo XVI coexistieron especies nativas e introducidas, sin embargo, durante el siglo XVII preponderaron las exóticas, y (iv) este predominio habría generado la extinción local de especies animales y vegetales nativas, alterando definitivamente el paisaje ecológico araucano The bio-geographic characteristics of the temperate America favored the introduction and spreading of exotic plant and animal species that supported the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming model. The effects of this situation produced ecological alterations on the territories inhabited by Indians without intense productive systems; as the Araucanía case. Through a historical and documental analysis this paper reports the main characteristics of the Araucanian ecological landscape disruption process during the 16th and 17th centuries: (i) during the 16th century, the introduction of exotic species dislocated the Mapuche economic system, (ii) both the relative Araucanía pristine conditions and the warlike process, occurred between the 16th and 17th centuries, favored the introduction and spreading of the new species, (iii) during the 16th century, both natives and exotic species coexisted, but during the next century the exotic species predominated, and (iv) this preponderance would have produced a local extinction of native plants and animals, disrupting definitively the Araucanian ecological landscape.
Efectos ambientales de la colonización espa?ola desde el río Maullín al archipiélago de Chiloé, sur de Chile
TORREJóN,FERNANDO; CISTERNAS,MARCO; ARANEDA,ALBERTO;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2004000400009
Abstract: the biogeographical characteristics of chiloé limited the introduction and propagation of exotic plants and animals that supported the subsistence and economy of spanish colonies. this in turn limited the rate of occupation and the scarce economic return of land reduced the extent and severity of environmental disturbances produced during the colonisation period. the present investigation analysed historic documentation from xvi, xvii and xviii centuries in order to characterise pre-hispanic environmental conditions and the environmental problems created by the colonist settlement. the adaptation of land-use practices to the region and the evolution of agricultural and forestry bring it by the colonists are described. the principal finding of this research indicates that the environmental impacts generated by the early spanish settlement were primarily at a local level, which meant that the ecological landscape of chiloé during the xviii century retained several of its pristine characteristics
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