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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5525 matches for " FC Olivier "
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The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane
FC Olivier, A Singels
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.
Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on the Implications of the Diminishing Water Resources of Lake Chad for North-Eastern Nigeria
FC Onuoha
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2008,
Abstract: Lake Chad has been a source of economic livelihood for millions of people inhabiting the catchment areas in the four riparian states, namely: Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. However, in the last four decades, the size of the lake including its resources has continued to diminish. The impact of this depletion is being felt by Lake Chad basin population who depend on the lake for their means of livelihood. This paper focuses on the diminishing natural resources of Lake Chad as an empirical referent to analyse the relationship that can develop among natural resource diminution, livelihood and conflicts. Of particular attention is the incidence of conflict between and among fishermen, pastoralists, farmers and sometimes state security agents, and the tendency of the conflicts to degenerate into large scale intra-ethnic, intra-state and interstate conflicts. The paper further draws attention to the implications of the diminishing water resources of the lake for the North-East zone of Nigeria, and makes recommendations suggested by the analysis. African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol. 8 (2) 2008: pp. 35-62
Assessment of some locally developed technologies for shortening the retting time of cassava
FC Ogbo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: The need to shorten the time taken for cassava tuber to ret has arisen because of increased demand for processed cassava products occasioned by population growth in developing countries. Locally developed technologies aimed at this objective which involved the addition of chemical substances to steep water were assessed to determine their efficacy. Retting time measured in hours was determined during 25 retting trials using separately in each set, a control and 0.5 ml kerosene/L, 1 g trona/L and 10 g nails/L of steep water. The results reveal that addition of chemicals to various extents influenced growth of microbes and production of organic acids during cassava retting. Trona inhibited detoxification of cyanogenic glycosides while kerosene and nails did not. Statistical analysis of retting time data showed that nails were efficacious in shortening retting time but that kerosene and trona were not. The mechanism of action of nails probably involved enhancement of growth and enzyme activity of microbes involved in production of macerating enzymes responsible for softening of tubers during retting. A better understanding of this process will be useful in developing safer and efficacious chemicals for shortening the retting time of cassava
Economic importance and growth rate of broiler chickens served fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaves extract
FC Nworgu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: An 8-week experiment was conducted to assess the weight gain and the economic importance of broiler chickens served fluted pumpkin leaf extract (FPLE) during the late dry season in Ibadan, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 treatments which contained 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 ml of FPLE per litre of water for A, B, C, D and E, respectively, in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times. The birds were fed with the same starter and finisher diets. The feed and water were served ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The FPLE is rich in protein (21.31%), ash (10.92%) and low in crude fibre, oxalate and tannin. Results of average body weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) different, which was least in control (1676.19 g/bird) compared to the birds served 30-120 ml of FPLE (1833.09-2089.70 g/bird). The cost of feed out of the total cost of production was least on the birds served 30- 120 ml of FPLE (61.79%) unlike control (66.21%). Benefit cost ratio (BCR) was best on the birds served 30-120 ml FPLE/l of water (1.91:1-2.06:1) compared to control (1.76:1). The net profit (NP) and cost of feed per kilogramme live weight gain were N307.13 and N87.50 /kg for the birds served 120 ml FPLE/litre of water compared to control (N208.17 and N96.52/kg), respectively. An average NP of N273.56 was made for the broiler chickens served 30-120 ml FPLE/l of water with reference to control (N208.17), which was a difference of N64.39 per bird. For improved growth rate and higher profit margin, it is advisable to serve broiler chickens 120 ml FPLE/litre of water during the late dry season. This is a simple, affordable and available technology for poultry farmers most especially during the harsh climatic period of the year.
The Effects Of Different Gonadotrophin Treatments On The Embryo Generation And Quality Of Embryos In West African Dwarf Goats
FC Iheukwumere
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of Ovine FSH, Porcine FSH (FSH-P) and HMG treatments on embryo generation and embryo quality were studied in West African dwarf goats The results on the number of corpora lutea (CL) on the ovary was (10.12 + 0.06) in FSH-P and (11.35 + 1.75) in FSH-O. However, they differed significantly (P < 0.05) from HMG (8.02 + 2.15) in CL values. The number of embryos recovered in FSH-P (7.25 + 0.04) and FSH-O (7.85 + 0.06) were similar (P > 0.05), but differed significantly (P < 0.05) from HMG (5.15 + 0.03). The ova/embryo wastage was not significantly different (P > 0.05) between T1 FSH-P (14.75 + 0.06%) and T2 FSH-O (13.54 + 0.14%), however, they differed significantly (P < 0.05) from T3 HMG (18.24 + 0.10%). Embryo recovery rate of goats treated with T1 FSH-P (85.02 + 0.06%) however, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from T3 HMG (68.24 + 1.24%). Goats treated with T2 FSH-O recorded higher fertilized embryos of 12.45 + 1.65 which differed significantly (P < 0.05) from T1 FSH-P (7.-0 + 2.15) and T3 HMG (6.16 + 1.12). The number of non-transferable embryos showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the treatment groups. The results of this study indicated that FSH-O is the gonadotrophin of choice for goat superovulation.
Effect Of Different Intesties Of Semen Collection And Biochemical Evaluation Of The Seminal Plasma Of West African Dwarf Bucks
FC Iheukwumere
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2008,
Abstract: The effect of different intensities of semen collection on semen characteristics, cations and fructose concentrations of the seminal plasma in West African dwarf bucks was studied. Twelve clinically healthy and matured bucks weighing between 25.6 – 35.7 kg were randomly allocated to four treatment groups in a completely randomized design (CRD). Semen quality (expressed as progressive motility and percentage of morphologically normal/life sperm cells) and sperm quantity (expressed as sperm concentration and semen volume), the cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) and fructose concentrations in the seminal plasma were the parameters evaluated in each buck. The highest sperm motility and percentage live sperm cells were observed when semen was ejaculated once per week. As compared with twice per week, three times per week and four times per week, the once a week ejaculations in semen concentration and volume were highest. The cations and fructose levels of the seminal plasma were highest at the once per week ejaculations. The results of this study indicate that once per week semen ejaculation enhances the fertility of West African dwarf bucks.
Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee: a case report
FC Sitati
East African Orthopaedic Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This case study is a report of a 21 year old female with one year history of non-traumatic left knee pain and swelling. Radiography and histology were in keeping with Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS). This case highlights the clinical presentation of this rare disorder and emphasizes its consideration as a differential diagnosis in our set up when dealing with non-traumatic persistent knee pain and swelling. East African Orthopaedic Journal, Vol. 4: March 2010
Musa ??FC
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: This study examines the previous and current versions of primary Turkish teacher education curriculum. Firstly, various features of the curriculum content are evaluated. Secondly, both versions of the curriculum are compared and contrasted according to the presented subject-specific courses and pedagogical subject-specific courses to see the similarities and differences between them. It is found out that the new version of the curriculum includes a limited number of subject specific courses. This situation can be criticised as a defficiency. As a result, this paper points out that a person who has not got the necessary knowledge and expertise of Turkish language cannot provide any contribution to teaching of Turkish. Bu al mada, Yüksek retim Kurulu taraf ndan haz rlanan 1998 ve 2005 Türk e retmenli i lisans retim programlar incelenmektedir. Programlar n i erik zellikleri Türk dili alan derslerinin ekseninde de erlendirilmekte; her iki program, alan ve alan e itimi dersleri bak m ndan kar la t r lmaktad r. zellikle alan dersleri i erisinde nemli yeri olmas gereken Türk dili temel alan derslerinin son programda azalt lmas ele tirilmektedir. Türk e retmeni adaylar n n alan hakimiyetini kaybetmeleri; Türk dili alan na hakim olamayan bir retmenin Türk e retimine katk sa layamayaca vurgulanmaktad r.
Selcen ??FC
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: In this study, It’s focused on the qualities of news sentences (News sentences refer to the sentences that could be seen in newspaper and written press) It’s stressed the similarities and the differences of news sentences that in written press. Five newspaper that’re rated in bestseller list are investigated the techiques of expression which could fake the news readers are how should be understood the concept of “News” is explaned in the context of media literacy. Ara t rmada, bir ileti im formu olarak haber cümlelerinin ta d klar ve ta malar gereken nitelikler üzerinde durulmu , mevcut yaz l bas ndan ayn haberlerin verili bi imleri derlenerek aralar ndaki ortakl klar ve farkl l klar vurgulanm t r. Bu ama la günlük yaz l süreli yay n organlar ndan tiraj s ralamas na g re ilk be te bulunanlar se ilerek haber yaz lar derlenmi , on günlük süre te derlenen yaz lar haber ileti im bi iminin kurallar na g re ve habere yap lan etkiye g re s n fland r lm t r; etkinin a k nedenleri irdelenerek, ileti imi bozucu veya okuyucuyu yan lt c anlat m tekniklerine dikkat ekilmi tir. “Haber” kavram n n medya okur-yazarl er evesinde nas l anla lmas gerekti i ortaya konmaya al lm t r.
Kardiovaskul res Risiko von Patienten mit nephrotischem Syndrom
Prischl FC
Journal für Kardiologie , 1999,
Abstract: Eine Hyperlipid mie gilt aufgrund zahlreicher Studien als wesentlicher Risikofaktor für die Entstehung kardiovaskul rer Erkrankungen und wird etwa vom American College of Cardiology als gesichert atherogen kategorisiert. Nicht ganz klar ist, ob dies analog auch für die zu den sekund ren Formen der Lipidstoffwechselst rungen geh rende Hyperlipid mie im Rahmen eines Nephrotischen Syndroms gilt. Bis dato gibt es nur eine, allerdings sehr sorgf ltig durchgeführte Untersuchung, die bei Patienten mit Nephrotischem Syndrom im Vergleich zu Kontrollen ein 5,5fach erh htes relatives Risiko für einen nicht-fatalen Myokardinfarkt und ein 2,8faches relatives Risiko für einen koronaren Tod nachweist. Aufgrund dieser Studie und der Evidenz einer generell sehr hohen kardialen Morbidit t und Mortalit t bei nierenkranken Patienten ist die Indikation für Lipid-senkende Interventionen gegeben. Am günstigsten erweist sich die erfolgreiche Behandlung der Grundkrankheit, da mit Verschwinden der Proteinurie auch eine Normalisierung der Blutfette einhergeht. Bei Ausbleiben einer Remission oder eines Relaps sollten aber Lipidsenker zum Einsatz kommen. Da bei Nephrotischem Syndrom charakteristischerweise vor allem Gesamt- und LDL-Cholesterin signifikant erh hte Werte aufweisen, sind die HMG-CoA-Reduktase-Inhibitoren als Mittel erster Wahl anzusehen. Als eventueller Kombinationspartner bei ungenügender Wirkung bietet sich Cholestyramin an. Fibrate sind nur in den wenigen speziellen F llen mit im Vordergrund stehender Hypertriglyzerid mie angezeigt. Das Risiko einer Myopathie bis hin zur Rhabdomyolyse als Nebenwirkung der Lipidsenker ist immer in Betracht zu ziehen.
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